Why might a policy likeRussification pro-duce results thatare opposite thoseintended?
In the chart on page 692, you can see the characteristics and examples of threetypes of nationalist movements. In today’s world, groups still use the spirit of nationalism to unify, separate, or build up nation-states.
Nationalism Shakes Aging Empires
Three aging empires—the Austrian Empire of the Hapsburgs, the Russian Empireof the Romanovs, and the Ottoman Empire of the Turks—contained a mixture of ethnic groups. Control of land and ethnic groups moved back and forth betweenthese empires, depending on victories or defeats in war and on royal marriages.When nationalism emerged in the 19th century, ethnic unrest threatened and even-tually toppled these empires.
The Breakup of the Austrian Empire
The Austrian Empire brought together Slovenes, Hungarians, Germans, Czechs, Slovaks, Croats, Poles, Serbs, and Italians.In 1866, Prussia defeated Austria in the Austro-Prussian War. With its victory,Prussia gained control of the newly organized North German Confederation, aunion of Prussia and 21 smaller German political units. Then, pressured by theHungarians, Emperor Francis Joseph of Austria split his empire in half, declaringAustria and Hungary independent states, with himself as ruler of both. The empirewas now called Austria-Hungary or the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Nationalist dis- putes continued to weaken the empire for more than 40 years. Finally, after World War I, Austria-Hungary broke into several separate nation-states.
The Russian Empire Crumbles
Nationalism also helped break up the 370-year-old empire of the czars in Russia. In addition to the Russians themselves, the czar ruled over 22 million Ukrainians, 8 million Poles, and smaller numbers of Lithuanians, Latvians, Estonians, Finns, Jews, Romanians, Georgians, Armenians,Turks, and others. Each group had its own culture.The ruling Romanov dynasty of Russia was determined to maintain iron controlover this diversity. They instituted a policy of
, forcing Russian cultureon all the ethnic groups in the empire. This policy actually strengthened ethnicnationalist feelings and helped to disunify Russia. The weakened czarist empirefinally could not withstand the double shock of World War I and the communist rev-olution. The last Romanov czar gave up his power in 1917.
The Ottoman Empire Weakens
The ruling Turks of the Ottoman Empire controlled Greeks, Slavs, Arabs, Bulgarians, and Armenians. In 1856, under pressure from theBritish and French, the Ottomans granted equal citizenship to all the people under their rule. That measure angered conservative Turks, who wanted no change in the sit-uation, and caused tensions in the empire. For example, in response to nationalism in
Driven from theirhomes, Armeniansbeg for bread at arefugee center.
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Presentation on theme: "NATIONALISM CASE STUDY: ITALY AND GERMANY 8.3. Nationalism: A Force for Unity or Disunity Authoritarian Leaders began to use nationalism to their benefit…unite."— Presentation transcript:
1 NATIONALISM CASE STUDY: ITALY AND GERMANY 8.3
2 Nationalism: A Force for Unity or Disunity Authoritarian Leaders began to use nationalism to their benefit…unite masses of people
3 Nationalism Shakes Aging Empires Three aging empires: 1. Austrian Empire (Hapsburgs) 2. Russian Empire (Romanovs) 3. Ottoman Empire (Turks) They all contained a mixture of ethnic groups These ethnic groups created unrest and eventually overhauled the empires
4 The Breakup of the Austrian Empire Austrian Empire brought together: Slovenes, Hungarians, Germans, Czechs, Slovaks, Croats, Poles, Serbs and Italians After the Austro-Prussian War (1866), Prussia (who won) gained the newly formed German Confederation Hungarians then pressured Francis Joseph Emperor of Austria to give them their own state ∴ Austria-Hungary is formed…each their own independent state under Francis Joseph’s rule Completely broken up after WWI, experienced 40 years of nationalist disputes.
6 The Russian Empire Crumbles Second Half of the 1800s: Russian Empire was 370 years old under the leadership of many czars Czars ruled over Russians, 22 million Ukrainians, 8 million Poles, + many more smaller ethnic groups each w/ own culture Romanovs issued the policy of Russification: Forcing Russian culture on all ethnic groups in the empire Ethnic groups backlashed, increased nationalism for their own culture even more and greatly weakened the Russian Empire During WWI couldn’t handle the pressure and the last Romanov stepped down (1917)!
8 The Ottoman Empire Weakens Turks controlled Greeks (until 1830), Slavs, Arabs, Bulgarians, + Armenians 1856: Under serious pressure from Britain + France, Ottomans gave all ppl = citizenship Greatly angered the Turks: For example: In response to Armenian nationalism the Turks massacred + deported the Armenians Completely broken up after WWI
10 Cavour Unites Italy Italian nationalists looked towards the Kingdom of Sardinia (largest + most powerful Italian state) They had adopted a liberal constitution in 1848 1852: Camillo di Cavour was named prime minster to the King of Sardinia Sought to unite Italy 1 st step push Austria out of Northern Italy Napoleon III agreed to help Cavour defeat Austria and they did Got all of Northern Italy back w/the exception of Venetia
11 Garibaldi Brings Unity Cavour, was also secretly working to unite southern Italy during this time Helping southern nationalist rebels ∴ in Southern Italy Giuseppe Garibaldi led a nationalist army in 1860 and captured Sicily Garibaldi + his followers always wore a bright red shirt ∴ the became known as the “Red Shirts” Agreed to unite southern and northern Italy under the control of the Sardinian King 1866: Gained control of Venetia (Venice) 1870: Gained control of Papal States (besides Rome)
13 Bismarck Unites Germany 1815 (thru Congress of Vienna) 39 states joined to form the German Confederation Largely controlled by Austria, but.. Prussia anxious to unify the states
14 Prussia Leads German Unification Unlike Austria-Hungry, Prussia had a primarily German population ∴ nationalism unified Prussia 1848 – Berlin rioters achieved a liberal constitution
15 Bismarck Takes Control 1861 – Wilhelm I (King of Prussia) asks Parliament for $ in order to double the size of the army They refuse Wilhelm sees this as a major challenge to his authority The Junkers supported this view Strongly conservative members of Prussia’s wealthy landowning class I am a Junker! Otto von Bismarck
16 Bismarck Takes Control 1862 – Wilhelm names Otto von Bismarck, a conservative Junker as his Prime Minister Bismarck was a master of realpolitik: “The politics of reality” no nonsense, tough power politics w/ little room for idealism. Bismarck stated he would rule w/o consent of the parliament + w/o a legal budget Direct violation of the 1848 constitution Page 262 quote
17 Prussia Expands 1864 – Bismarck of Prussia and Austria form an alliance Go to war against Demark and win Schleswig and Holstein Schleswig went to Prussia, and Holstein to Austria
18 Seven Weeks’ War Bismarck purposely pick a border war with Austria over this newly gained territory Austria declared war on Prussia in 1866 known as the Seven Weeks’ War. Prussians had a superior army and very decisively humiliated and beat Austria Austria lost the area of Venetia (given to Italy) and had to accept the annexation of more German territory
20 The Franco Prussian War 1867: Bismarck thought he could gain southern German support by crafting a war with France Created the impression that the French Ambassador insulted the Prussian King France responded by declaring war on Prussia Prussian Army pours into France and took 83,000 prisoners including Napoleon III Forced Parisians into starvation until they surrendered Won the Southern Germans with strong national pro- German sentiments and they then accepted Prussian leadership King Wilhelm I named Kaiser Wilhelm I of Prussia. German Second Reich