Berl Kutchinsky Research Paper

Businesses in Union County, Ohio, have been pressured by religious and political leaders to ban pornography from their shelves. Not surprisingly, then, The Columbus Dispatch reported on August 27, 2000 that more households in Union County subscribe to Playboy than to Newsweek.

Attempts to suppress pornography and other adult entertainment often have that effect. They are also counterproductive in other ways.

The Feb. 10, 1997 issue of U.S. News states that the U.S. government launched a “war on pornography” in the 1980s. This crackdown included enforcement of some of the toughest restrictions on sexually explicit materials in the Western industrialized world.

Despite those actions, domestic consumption of sexually explicit materials increased drastically. And the U.S. became by far the world’s leading producer of pornography.

The same U.S. News article reports that after Denmark repealed its obscenity laws in 1969, demand for pornography eventually underwent a long and steady decline in that country. A few years after the decline began, a survey of Copenhagen residents found that most Danes came to regard pornography as “uninteresting” or “repulsive.”

Subsequent research by the University of Copenhagen’s Berl Kutchinsky, who studied the effects of legalized pornography in Denmark for more than 25 years, confirms those findings. He relates: “The most common immediate reaction to a one-hour pornography stimulation was boredom.”

The contrasting American and Danish experiences uphold a truth that religious people, in particular, should know: forbidden fruit appears sweetest and becomes inordinately fascinating. Or as Chaucer put it in The Canterbury Tales:

When something’s difficult, or can’t be had,
We crave and cry for it all day like mad.

Thus, by denouncing and trying to close establishments offering adult entertainment, the morality busybodies are often the greatest benefactors of the sex industry.

Censoring pornography is also wrong for other reasons. There is strong evidence that pornography has positive effects for society and some individuals.

The 1970 Presidential Commission on Obscenity and Pornography reports that pornography may provide a harmless sexual outlet for persons who might otherwise seek antisocial ones. Denmark’s experience is consistent with this thesis, because sex offenses there declined following legalization of pornography.

Likewise in Sweden and the former West Germany, sex crimes against children went down significantly in the years after restrictions were lifted on the availability of pornography.

Similarly in England, the British Inquiry into Obscenity and Film Censorship couldn’t find a link between sexually explicit materials and sex crimes. Instead, its report shows that sexual assaults declined during a five-year period of increasing explicitness and availability of erotica. The study also notes an increase in sex crimes following a crackdown on hardcore pornography.

Sexologist Milton Diamond, Ph.D., a professor at the Burns School of Medicine at the University of Hawaii, identified similar occurrences in Japan. “It is certainly clear from the data reviewed that a massive increase in available pornography in Japan . . . has been correlated with a dramatic decrease in sexual crimes and most so among youngsters as perpetrators or victims.” (Emphasis sic.)

Edward Donnerstein, of the University of California at Santa Barbara, is a leading expert on the effects of pornography. He reports: “A good amount of research strongly supports the position that exposure to erotica can reduce aggressive responses in people who are predisposed to aggress.”

And in this age of HIV and many other serious sexually transmitted diseases, the pornography outlet would have to be classified as a safe-sex practice. The same cannot be said of many other sex practices common today.

Diamond mentions additional benefits of erotica: “Pornography is unequivocally a substitute for sex for people who don’t have or don’t want a real sex partner or who see it as more pleasurable and less bother than other options. It can also be a means of arousing oneself or a partner, a welcome aphrodisiac.”

Sex therapist and sex educator Lloyd G. Sinclair says the benefits of pornography also include “an increase in the likelihood that viewers will talk about sex (a generally positive effect since most sexual partners benefit from these discussions). . . .” Another positive outcome he notes is “the introduction of medically and relationally safe variety into couples’ sexual interactions, something many long-term couples find helpful in maintaining sexual interest and pleasure in their relationships.”

Philip D. Harvey points out in his book The Government vs. Erotica that the benefits aren’t just for the young. “Older Americans are having sex, enjoying it, and even using toys and watching explicit videos,” he writes. “As many hundreds of couples have reported on surveys, such activities provide pleasure and intimacy in their lives and their happiness is increased.”

Further, pornography is often used successfully as part of sex therapy in treating sexual dysfunctions. And pornography has been useful as an adjunct in sex education programs designed to help persons overcome other problems associated with body guilt, shame, and fears.

Although adult pornography appears to be harmless and often beneficial, police crackdowns can have devastating effects on those arrested for involvement with it. The fallout can include losses of jobs, assets, liberty, or worse.

For instance, Ohio State University philosophy professor emeritus Andrew Oldenquist wrote in 2003: “I remember a news story in central Ohio from more than 30 years ago. A middle-aged man was arrested for having adult pornography in his home. He killed himself. Isn’t it time we stop tormenting people for what they do in private and which harms no one?”

Indeed, society would benefit greatly by using law-enforcement resources against real crimes involving clear victims and injustices. It is counterproductive to oppose the freedom of consenting adults to work in and patronize the sex industry.

Berl Kutchinsky (1935 - 1995) was a Danish Professor of Criminology at the University of Copenhagen.[1][2] He became internationally famous for his studies in the public health effects of pornography.

He was based in Denmark, which in 1969 became the first country to legalize hardcore pornography[1][3] Sweden followed suit in 1970, and West Germany in 1973.[1] Kutchinsky was therefore in a unique position to study the effect of pornography on a massive scale. Over the next two decades Kutchinsky carried out extensive research into crime statistics in the three countries.[1] His findings were that increased availability of pornography had not led to an increase in sexual violence.[1] He found that the incidence of certain sex crimes had in fact fallen, including rates of child sexual abuse in Denmark.[1]

His first work on the subject, Studies on Pornography and sex crimes in Denmark (1970), was a scientific report ordered by the United States' President's Commission on Obscenity and Pornography. It found that the legalizing of pornography in Denmark had not (as had been expected) resulted in an increase in sex crimes.[4]

In 1980 he helped to draft the law which banned child pornography in Denmark; after which according to him, "Child porn has largely disappeared from Denmark."[2] Berl Kutchinsky's last book, Law, pornography, and crime: The Danish experience, was edited by his colleague Annika Snare and published posthumously in 1999.

Selected works[edit]

  • Studies on Pornography and sex crimes in Denmark (New Social Science Monographs, Denmark 1970)
  • Obscenity and Pornography: Behavioral Aspects, In: Encyclopedia of Crime and Justice, Vol. 3, pp 1077–1086 (The Free Press, Macmillan, New York 1983)
  • Pornography and its Effects in Denmark and the United States: A Rejoinder and Beyond, in: Comparative Social Research, vol. 8, pp. 301–30 (JAI Press, USA 1985)
  • Som hånd i hanke, In: Hug nr. 42/43 (Tiderne Skifter, Denmark 1985)
  • Big sister is watching!, In: Umoralske opstød - 15 debatindlæg om s/m, pornografi og nypuritanisme (Juvelen, Denmark 1986)
  • Legalised pornography in Denmark, In: Men Confronting Pornography, pp. 233–45, 335-6 (Crown Publishers, New York 1990)
  • Pornography and rape: Theory and practice? Evidence from crime data in four countries where pornography is easily available, In: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry, vol. 14, 1991, no. 1 & 2, pp. 47–64. (1991)
  • Pornography, Sex Crime and Public Policy (Institute of Criminology and Criminal Science, University of Copenhagen, Denmark 1991)
  • Den pornografiske scene, In: Social Kritik nr. 64, June 1999 (Selskabet til fremme af Social Debat, Denmark 1999)
  • Law, pornography, and crime: The Danish experience (Pax Forlag, Oslo 1999)

Further reading[edit]

References[edit]

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