2.1 Running Distance and Body Weight
Weekly running was reliable across the three weeks in females, intraclass correlation (ICC) (2,3) =.875 and in males, ICC (2,3) = .900. Running increased over time in females, F(2,36)=14.486, ε=.846, η2 = .45, p<.001, and males, F(2,36)=4.45, ε=.980, η2 = .20, p<.05. There was an effect of line in females, F(1, 18)=47.289, η2 = .72, p<.001, and in males, F(1, 18)=13.766, η2 = .43, p<.01. HCR rats ran more on average than LCR rats, but there was also a line × quadratic trend across time in females, F(1,18) = 10.192, η2 = .36, p=.005. There was a quadratic effect of time independent of line in males, F(1,18) = 4.927, η2 = .22, p=.04. Among females, weekly running distance increased linearly in LCR, F(1,9) = 12.212, ε=.564, η2 = .58, p=.007, but it reached a plateau after week 2 in HCR, F(1,9) = 8.168, ε=.908, η2 = .48, p=.017. Among males, running distance increased linearly in LCR, F(1,9) = 8.805, ε=.908, η2 = .50, p=.016 (Fig. 1).
Mean daily running distances (± SEM) on the activity-wheel over 3 weeks. High-capacity running (HCR) rats ran more on average than low-capacity running (LCR) rats. There was an interaction effect between lines over 3 weeks in females; the effect...
Body weight was reliable across the five weeks in females, ICC (2,3) =.978, and in males, ICC (2,3) = .986. Body weight increased linearly over time in females, F(2,72)=653.246, ε= 1.0, η2 = .95, p<.001, and in males, F(2,72)=954.299, ε= 1.0, η2 = .964, p<.001. There was an effect of line in females, F(1, 36)=126.081, η2 = .78, p<.001, and in males, F(1, 36)=110.919, η2 = .76, p<.001. HCR rats weighed less on average (initial mean ± SD, pre-decapitation mean ± SD) (females: 163 ± 11 g, 204 ± 17 g; males: 230 ± 18 g, 318 ± 35 g) than LCR rats (females: 209 ± 15 g, 259 ± 16 g; males: 330 ± 38 g, 438 ± 48 g), but line and line × condition effects were not significant between wheel running rats (females: 184 ± 27 g, 223 ± 33 g; males: 277 ± 57 g, 366 ± 66 g), and SED rats (females: 187 ± 28 g, 239 ± 31 g; males: 283 ± 61 g, 391 ± 81 g) (females: F-values < 3.2, η2 < .08, p-values >.08; males: F-values < 2.4, η2 < .07, p-values >.13).
2.2 ENK mRNA in the Striatum
There was a line effect in the NAS among females, F (1,25)=13.038, η2 = .343, p =.001, and the OT among males, F(1,30) =7.510, η2 = .20, p =.01 and females, F(1,25) =4.924, η2 = .165, p =.036. HCR expressed less ENK mRNA compared to LCR in the ventral striatum (Fig. 2a). A similar effect in the dorsal striatum did not reach statistical significance for females, η2 = .13, p=.067, or males, η2 = .03, p=.29 (Fig. 2b). There were no condition, condition × line, or condition × line × sex effects of wheel running on ENK mRNA (F-values ≤ 1.815, η2 ≤ .032, p ≥.183).
(a) Average enkephalin (ENK) mRNA expression (± SEM) in the nucleus accumbens septi (NAS). High capacity running (HCR) rats expressed less ENK than low capacity running (LCR) rats; OT=olfactory tubercle, NAS= nucleus accumbens septi. (b) Average...
Among females, average running distance was correlated with ENK mRNA in the NAS, r = −.740, t =3.48, p = .006, and the OT, r = −.631, t = 2.57, p=.028 (Fig 3). Among males, ENK mRNA was uncorrelated with running distance in the OT (r = .069, t =.26, p = .80). Dorsal striatal ENK mRNA was uncorrelated with running distance in females, r = −.479, t =1.724, p = .115, or males, r = .109, t =.453, p = .656.
Mean daily running distance and ENK mRNA expression among female rats in the nucleus accumbens septi (NAS; panel A) and the olfactory tubercle (OT; panel B). Correlations between running distance and ENK mRNA in the NAS and the OT were mainly explained...
Releasing Protected Health Information 2 The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA), was established by the United States Congress in 1996 and became effective on July 1, 1997. This act is a grouping of regulations that work to fight against fraud and abuse in health insurance and health care delivery. The purpose of the HIPAA is also to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of the health care system, continuity of health insurance coverage, as well as providing consequences to those who do not apply the regulations as stated within the HIPAA (Highmark, 2007). There are different agencies and representatives that may request for patients protected health information (PHI) without or with the patients consent. The PHI is information that is identifiable to an individual such as name, address, telephone numbers, and date of birth, Medicaid ID number, There are many situations when the government has the right or the legal obligation to your medical records. State agencies must keep records of births and deaths as well as registries of people who have been diagnosed with a serious illness, such as cancer. Typically, disclosures to the government do not require the individual’s authorization (Highmark, 2007). Some of these government organizations that do not need authorization are Medicare, Medicaid, military,