RESUMO A Guerra na Síria, um conflito internacional intenso e atroz ainda não concluído, está produzindo uma das maiores tragédias humanas no início do século XXI. O politicídio e as práticas genocidas cometidas pelo próprio Governo sírio... more
A Guerra na Síria, um conflito internacional intenso e atroz ainda não concluído, está produzindo uma das maiores tragédias humanas no início do século XXI. O politicídio e as práticas genocidas cometidas pelo próprio Governo sírio contra seus nacionais, a violência e a barbárie perpetradas por atores não estatais, como o grupo terrorista transnacional Daesh (vulgo Estado Islâmico), ou o grupo terrorista sírio Al-Nusra, entre outros, somados à intervenção internacional direta e indireta de uma coalizão de diversos Estados-nação, defendendo diferentes lados dessa guerra, conformam um cenário doméstico caótico e nebuloso. Essa situação está resultando no deslocamento forçado de mais de seis milhões de sírios dentro da própria Síria e a fuga massiva de mais de quatro milhões de refugiados sírios, que se espalharam por vários continentes. A maioria desses refugiados sírios está concentrada, nesta ordem, em países vizinhos ao território sírio no Oriente Médio (como especialmente Líbano e Turquia), outros milhares estão tentando pedir asilo na Europa ocidental (na Alemanha e Suécia, por exemplo) e um terceiro grupo de refugiados sírios procurou refúgio no Continente Americano. Mas, como cada governo da região americana está lidando com esta problemática internacional? Como estão sendo recebidos esses refugiados sírios em cada um desses países? Como a sociedade civil nesses países está se mobilizando para receber esses migrantes internacionais? Neste sentido, o presente estudo visa analisar as políticas de refúgio e de integração promovidas particularmente para o grupo de refugiados sírios, pelos países do continente americano rastreados pela pesquisa, a fim de diagnosticar como os governos dessa região têm respondido ou influído em um dos temas mais sensíveis e complexos do cenário internacional contemporâneo. Para tanto, faz-se uma análise quali-quantitativa de dados de diferentes organizações internacionais especializadas na temática migratória e na de refúgio, bem como órgãos nacionais colegiados que se dedicam ao trato burocrático-jurídico da condição de refugiado, como os Comitês Nacionais para Refugiados locais, e da mesma forma, utilizam-se ainda estudos acadêmicos, legislações nacionais e reportagens. Até o presente momento, os países que mais receberam refugiados sírios nesse continente foram o Canadá, EUA, Brasil e Argentina, respectivamente, enquanto países como Chile, México e Uruguai receberam concentrações populacionais muito menores. Além disso, milhares desses refugiados sírios estão residindo temporariamente e tentando sobreviver no continente, em meio a muitas dificuldades diárias, como as diferenças socioculturais ocidentais, empregabilidade, etc.
Refugiados sírios. Continente americano. Políticas de refúgio e de integração.
The War in Syria, an intense and cruel international conflict still not concluded, is producing one of the biggest human tragedies on the beginning of the 21st century. The politicide and the genocidal practices committed by the own Syrian government against its nationals, the violence and the barba-rism perpetrated by non-state actors, like the transnational terrorist group Daesh (a.k.a Islamic State), or the Syrian terrorist group Al-Nusra, among others, added to the direct and indirect international intervention of a coalition of diverse States, defending different sides of this war shape a chaotic and nebulous domestic scenario. This situation is resulting in the forced displacement of more than six million Syrians inside Syria and the massive fleeing of more than four million of Syrian refugees that have spread by different continents. The majority of these Syrian refugees is concentrated in neighbouring countries of the Syrian territory in Middle East (like Lebanon and Turkey, specially), other thousands are trying to request asylum in Western Europe (in Germany and Sweden, for in-stance) and a third group of Syrian refugees has looked for refuge in the American continent. How-ever, how each government of the American region is coping with this international problematic? How these Syrian refugees are being received in each of these countries? How the civil society in these countries is mobilizing itself to receive these international migrants? In this sense, this study aims to analyse the refuge and integration policies developed particularly for the group of Syrian refugees, by American continent countries tracked by the research, in order to diagnose how the governments of this region have answered to or influenced one of the most sensitive and complex themes of the contemporary international scenario. For this, it is made a quali-quantitative analysis of data of different international organisations specialized on migration and refugee theme, as well as national organisms that dedicate themselves to deal with the judicial-bureaucratic condition of the refugee, such as the local Comites Nacionais para Refugiados, and it was also used academic studies, national laws and news. Until now, the countries that receive more Syrian refugees in this continent were Canada, USA, Brazil and Argentina, respectively, while countries like Chile, Mexico and Uruguay have received much smaller population concentrations. Besides, thousands of these Syrian refugees are residing temporarily and trying to survive in the continent, among many daily difficulties, such as western sociocultural differences, employability, etc.
Syrian refugees. American continent. Refugee and integration policies.
Since the beginning of the Syrian war in 2011, many have fled the country and settled in the neighboring states, including Lebanon, Turkey, Iraq, Jordan, and Egypt. Currently, there are 4 million Syrian refugees registered in the region. By mid-2015, the World Bank’s estimated cost of the Syrian war for the Middle Eastern countries is $35 billion. This load is too heavy to endure, and this is why refugees have been aiming for European countries for a couple of years now.
The Syrian problem is growing into the biggest migration crisis in Europe. At the moment, there are over 9 million refugees seeking asylum. In 2012, when the refugees mostly fled to neighboring countries and Turkey, Greece was cautious enough to strengthen the borders. In 2013, Turkey and Bulgaria joined and started building their fences too.
Turkey now hosts up to 2 million Syrian refugees, according to the recent data. This makes it the country that has spent the largest amount of money — over $5.5 billion — on providing shelter for the largest number of middle-eastern immigrants. Although it was estimated that in 2014, Syrian refugees started more than a thousand businesses in Turkey, many immigrants cannot provide for themselves and their families, which is why they are aiming for Europe where economic conditions are the best, namely Germany, Sweden, Austria, and the UK.
Apart from the huge sums of money paid (usually over $1,000 each), the refugees’ journey is long and exhausting; it often takes weeks to get through Turkey and then to the Greek territory. In 2014, over 200,000 Syrian people set off to Europe using unconventional routes by sea and land. As a result over 3.5 thousand of them have drowned. In 2015, nearly 2 thousand did not make it. Almost all of them go through horrible anti-sanitary conditions that result in diseases.
Europe does not always welcome immigrants. For example, incapable of coping with crowds of Syrian refugees, Hungarians have been trying to fence off the flow of Syrians. They had to close Keleti train station in Budapest not to let them further into the continent. A number of Syrian immigrants were halted on their way to Austria and taken to the camp in Bicske, not far from the Hungarian capital.
The problem is that no country in the European Union has a valid immigration policy to deal with the current situation. Right now, every country has to decide on how many refugees it is willing to accept. Just very recently, Germany agreed to take in 800,000 refugees. In order to cater to the immigrants’ immediate needs, the country needs around $5 billion, and the officials believe that it is manageable. Some countries, like the Kingdom of Denmark, refused to accept any number of Syrians.
On September 3rd, photos of the Turkish police carrying two drowned Syrian children flooded the world’s media. The further investigation revealed the story of a Kurdish family fleeing from Turkey to Europe in a rubber boat, of whom only the father survived. They fled to Turkey forced out of their country by the ISIL troops, but could hardly provide for themselves there. This story has shaken the world’s community. As a result, countries like the UK have increased the number of refugees they are willing to accept.
According to the 1951 UN Refugee Convention and the EU Charter of Fundamental Rights, European countries have the obligation to provide asylum to those who seek it. This is not the matter of politics and economy, but of basic human rights. There is no person that should live in fear for their life and the lives of their close ones. While European countries are deciding on whether they are going to accept the refugees and how many of them exactly, the clock is ticking. The fear of the biggest migration crisis in the past 70 years can be well understood, but it is now time to unite and provide a new home for those who need it the most.
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