Example Of Citing Sources In Essay

MLA In-Text Citations: The Basics

Summary:

MLA (Modern Language Association) style is most commonly used to write papers and cite sources within the liberal arts and humanities. This resource, updated to reflect the MLA Handbook (8th ed.), offers examples for the general format of MLA research papers, in-text citations, endnotes/footnotes, and the Works Cited page.

Contributors: Tony Russell, Allen Brizee, Elizabeth Angeli, Russell Keck, Joshua M. Paiz, Michelle Campbell, Rodrigo Rodríguez-Fuentes, Daniel P. Kenzie, Susan Wegener, Maryam Ghafoor, Purdue OWL Staff
Last Edited: 2017-10-23 08:53:38

Guidelines for referring to the works of others in your text using MLA style are covered in chapter 6 of the MLA Handbook and in chapter 7 of the MLA Style Manual. Both books provide extensive examples, so it's a good idea to consult them if you want to become even more familiar with MLA guidelines or if you have a particular reference question.

Basic in-text citation rules

In MLA style, referring to the works of others in your text is done by using what is known as parenthetical citation. This method involves placing relevant source information in parentheses after a quote or a paraphrase.

General Guidelines

  • The source information required in a parenthetical citation depends (1.) upon the source medium (e.g. Print, Web, DVD) and (2.) upon the source’s entry on the Works Cited (bibliography) page.
  • Any source information that you provide in-text must correspond to the source information on the Works Cited page. More specifically, whatever signal word or phrase you provide to your readers in the text, must be the first thing that appears on the left-hand margin of the corresponding entry in the Works Cited List.

In-text citations: Author-page style

MLA format follows the author-page method of in-text citation. This means that the author's last name and the page number(s) from which the quotation or paraphrase is taken must appear in the text, and a complete reference should appear on your Works Cited page. The author's name may appear either in the sentence itself or in parentheses following the quotation or paraphrase, but the page number(s) should always appear in the parentheses, not in the text of your sentence. For example:

Wordsworth stated that Romantic poetry was marked by a "spontaneous overflow of powerful feelings" (263).

Romantic poetry is characterized by the "spontaneous overflow of powerful feelings" (Wordsworth 263).

Wordsworth extensively explored the role of emotion in the creative process (263).

Both citations in the examples above, (263) and (Wordsworth 263), tell readers that the information in the sentence can be located on page 263 of a work by an author named Wordsworth. If readers want more information about this source, they can turn to the Works Cited page, where, under the name of Wordsworth, they would find the following information:

Wordsworth, William. Lyrical Ballads. Oxford UP, 1967.

In-text citations for print sources with known author

For Print sources like books, magazines, scholarly journal articles, and newspapers, provide a signal word or phrase (usually the author’s last name) and a page number. If you provide the signal word/phrase in the sentence, you do not need to include it in the parenthetical citation.

Human beings have been described by Kenneth Burke as "symbol-using animals" (3).

Human beings have been described as "symbol-using animals" (Burke 3).

These examples must correspond to an entry that begins with Burke, which will be the first thing that appears on the left-hand margin of an entry in the Works Cited:

Burke, Kenneth. Language as Symbolic Action: Essays on Life, Literature, and Method. Berkeley: U of California P, 1966.

In-text citations for print sources by a corporate author

When a source has a corporate author, it is acceptable to use the name of the corporation followed by the page number for the in-text citation. You should also use abbreviations (e.g., nat'l for national) where appropriate, so as to avoid interrupting the flow of reading with overly long parenthetical citations.

In-text citations for print sources with no known author

When a source has no known author, use a shortened title of the work instead of an author name. Place the title in quotation marks if it's a short work (such as an article) or italicize it if it's a longer work (e.g. plays, books, television shows, entire Web sites) and provide a page number if it is available.

We see so many global warming hotspots in North America likely because this region has "more readily accessible climatic data and more comprehensive programs to monitor and study environmental change . . ." ("Impact of Global Warming").

In this example, since the reader does not know the author of the article, an abbreviated title of the article appears in the parenthetical citation which corresponds to the full name of the article which appears first at the left-hand margin of its respective entry in the Works Cited. Thus, the writer includes the title in quotation marks as the signal phrase in the parenthetical citation in order to lead the reader directly to the source on the Works Cited page. The Works Cited entry appears as follows:

"The Impact of Global Warming in North America." Global Warming: Early Signs. 1999. http://www.climatehotmap.org/. Accessed 23 Mar. 2009.

We'll learn how to make a Works Cited page in a bit, but right now it's important to know that parenthetical citations and Works Cited pages allow readers to know which sources you consulted in writing your essay, so that they can either verify your interpretation of the sources or use them in their own scholarly work.

Author-page citation for classic and literary works with multiple editions

Page numbers are always required, but additional citation information can help literary scholars, who may have a different edition of a classic work like Marx and Engels's The Communist Manifesto. In such cases, give the page number of your edition (making sure the edition is listed in your Works Cited page, of course) followed by a semicolon, and then the appropriate abbreviations for volume (vol.), book (bk.), part (pt.), chapter (ch.), section (sec.), or paragraph (par.). For example:

Marx and Engels described human history as marked by class struggles (79; ch. 1).

Citing authors with same last names

Sometimes more information is necessary to identify the source from which a quotation is taken. For instance, if two or more authors have the same last name, provide both authors' first initials (or even the authors' full name if different authors share initials) in your citation. For example:

Although some medical ethicists claim that cloning will lead to designer children (R. Miller 12), others note that the advantages for medical research outweigh this consideration (A. Miller 46).

Citing a work by multiple authors

For a source with two authors, list the authors’ last names in the text or in the parenthetical citation:

Best and Marcus argue that one should read a text for what it says on its surface, rather than looking for some hidden meaning (9).

The authors claim that surface reading looks at what is “evident, perceptible, apprehensible in texts” (Best and Marcus 9).

Corresponding works cited entry:

Best, David, and Sharon Marcus. “Surface Reading: An Introduction.” Representations, vol. 108, no. 1, Fall 2009, pp. 1-21. JSTOR, doi:10.1525/rep.2009.108.1.1

For a source with three or more authors, list only the first author’s last name, and replace the additional names with et al.

According to Franck et al., “Current agricultural policies in the U.S. are contributing to the poor health of Americans” (327).

The authors claim that one cause of obesity in the United States is government-funded farm subsidies (Franck et al. 327).

Corresponding works cited entry:

Franck, Caroline, et al. “Agricultural Subsidies and the American Obesity Epidemic.” American Journal of Preventative Medicine, vol. 45, no. 3, Sept. 2013, pp. 327-333.

Citing multiple works by the same author

If you cite more than one work by a particular author, include a shortened title for the particular work from which you are quoting to distinguish it from the others. Put short titles of books in italics and short titles of articles in quotation marks.

Citing two articles by the same author:

Lightenor has argued that computers are not useful tools for small children ("Too Soon" 38), though he has acknowledged elsewhere that early exposure to computer games does lead to better small motor skill development in a child's second and third year ("Hand-Eye Development" 17).

Citing two books by the same author:

Murray states that writing is "a process" that "varies with our thinking style" (Write to Learn 6). Additionally, Murray argues that the purpose of writing is to "carry ideas and information from the mind of one person into the mind of another" (A Writer Teaches Writing 3).

Additionally, if the author's name is not mentioned in the sentence, you would format your citation with the author's name followed by a comma, followed by a shortened title of the work, followed, when appropriate, by page numbers:

Visual studies, because it is such a new discipline, may be "too easy" (Elkins, "Visual Studies" 63).

Citing multivolume works

If you cite from different volumes of a multivolume work, always include the volume number followed by a colon. Put a space after the colon, then provide the page number(s). (If you only cite from one volume, provide only the page number in parentheses.)

. . . as Quintilian wrote in Institutio Oratoria (1: 14-17).

Citing the Bible

In your first parenthetical citation, you want to make clear which Bible you're using (and underline or italicize the title), as each version varies in its translation, followed by book (do not italicize or underline), chapter and verse. For example:

Ezekiel saw "what seemed to be four living creatures," each with faces of a man, a lion, an ox, and an eagle (New Jerusalem Bible, Ezek. 1.5-10).

If future references employ the same edition of the Bible you’re using, list only the book, chapter, and verse in the parenthetical citation.

Citing indirect sources

Sometimes you may have to use an indirect source. An indirect source is a source cited in another source. For such indirect quotations, use "qtd. in" to indicate the source you actually consulted. For example:

Ravitch argues that high schools are pressured to act as "social service centers, and they don't do that well" (qtd. in Weisman 259).

Note that, in most cases, a responsible researcher will attempt to find the original source, rather than citing an indirect source.

Citing non-print or sources from the Internet

With more and more scholarly work being posted on the Internet, you may have to cite research you have completed in virtual environments. While many sources on the Internet should not be used for scholarly work (reference the OWL's Evaluating Sources of Information resource), some Web sources are perfectly acceptable for research. When creating in-text citations for electronic, film, or Internet sources, remember that your citation must reference the source in your Works Cited.

Sometimes writers are confused with how to craft parenthetical citations for electronic sources because of the absence of page numbers, but often, these sorts of entries do not require any sort of parenthetical citation at all. For electronic and Internet sources, follow the following guidelines:

  • Include in the text the first item that appears in the Work Cited entry that corresponds to the citation (e.g. author name, article name, website name, film name).
  • You do not need to give paragraph numbers or page numbers based on your Web browser’s print preview function.
  • Unless you must list the Web site name in the signal phrase in order to get the reader to the appropriate entry, do not include URLs in-text. Only provide partial URLs such as when the name of the site includes, for example, a domain name, like CNN.com or Forbes.com as opposed to writing out http://www.cnn.com or http://www.forbes.com.

Miscellaneous non-print sources

Werner Herzog's Fitzcarraldo stars Herzog's long-time film partner, Klaus Kinski. During the shooting of Fitzcarraldo, Herzog and Kinski were often at odds, but their explosive relationship fostered a memorable and influential film.

During the presentation, Jane Yates stated that invention and pre-writing are areas of rhetoric that need more attention.

In the two examples above “Herzog” from the first entry and “Yates” from the second lead the reader to the first item each citation’s respective entry on the Works Cited page:

Herzog, Werner, dir. Fitzcarraldo. Perf. Klaus Kinski. Filmverlag der Autoren, 1982.

Yates, Jane. "Invention in Rhetoric and Composition." Gaps Addressed: Future Work in Rhetoric and Composition, CCCC, Palmer House Hilton, 2002.

Electronic sources

One online film critic stated that Fitzcarraldo "has become notorious for its near-failure and many obstacles" (Taylor, “Fitzcarraldo”).

The Purdue OWL is accessed by millions of users every year. Its "MLA Formatting and Style Guide" is one of the most popular resources (Russell et al.).

In the first example, the writer has chosen not to include the author name in-text; however, two entries from the same author appear in the Works Cited. Thus, the writer includes both the author’s last name and the article title in the parenthetical citation in order to lead the reader to the appropriate entry on the Works Cited page (see below). In the second example, “Russell et al.” in the parenthetical citation gives the reader an author name followed by the abbreviation “et al.,” meaning, “and others,” for the article “MLA Formatting and Style Guide.” Both corresponding Works Cited entries are as follows:

Taylor, Rumsey. "Fitzcarraldo." Slant, 13 Jun. 2003, www.slantmagazine.com/film/review/fitzcarraldo/.

Russell, Tony, et al. "MLA Formatting and Style Guide." The Purdue OWL, 2 Aug. 2016, owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/747/01/.

Multiple citations

To cite multiple sources in the same parenthetical reference, separate the citations by a semi-colon:

. . . as has been discussed elsewhere (Burke 3; Dewey 21).

Time-based media sources

When creating in-text citations for media that has a runtime, such as a movie or podcast, include the range of hours, minutes and seconds you plan to reference, like so (00:02:15-00:02:35).

When a citation is not needed

Common sense and ethics should determine your need for documenting sources. You do not need to give sources for familiar proverbs, well-known quotations or common knowledge. Remember, this is a rhetorical choice, based on audience. If you're writing for an expert audience of a scholarly journal, for example, they'll have different expectations of what constitutes common knowledge.

MLA Citation Examples

Based on the MLA Handbook, 8th Edition, 2016

Some General Rules

Works Cited List Examples

Need More Help?

For further guidance on MLA citations, please visit The MLA Style Center. You can also ask a librarian for help with citation-related questions. 

Need the 7th Edition?

See MLA Citation Examples: 7th Edition.


Some General Rules

In-Text Citations


What You Are Citing

In-Text Citation

The entire work
(or a work that has no page numbers)

Include information in the text of your paper that will allow the reader to locate the source in your works cited list.

If it is not possible to include this information in the text, follow the sentence where the citation needs to be made with an in-text citation containing only the name of the author.

In his article "Allston Gothic," local historian Forman Jackson demonstrates how completely the neighborhood's gruesome past has been forgotten by its residents.

OR

A recent newspaper article demonstrated just how thoroughly the neighborhood's gruesome past has been forgotten by its residents (Jackson).

A specific page

(Cortois 70)

If the author's name is included in the text of the sentence where the citation takes place

Jacobs has argued this point (190-210).

Multi-volume set

(Green 1: 112-14)
"1" is the volume number.

Citing multiple authors

See Authors, below.



Authors

One author

Example:
Works Cited List

Example:
In-Text Citation

Courtois, Charles A.

(Cortois 70)



Two authors

Example:
Works Cited List

Example:
In-Text Citation

Martin, Jonathan A., and Christopher Jackson.

(Martin and Jackson 127-28)



Three or more authors

Example:
Works Cited List

Example:
In-Text Citation

Fontela, Pablo, et al.

If a work has more than 2 authors, MLA gives you the option of listing only the first author followed by "et al." (Latin for "and others").

(Fontela et al. 153-54)



Group author

Example:
Works Cited List

Example:
In-Text Citation

Modern Language Association.

(Modern Language Association 111)



No authors listed

Example:
Works Cited List

Example:
In-Text Citation

"Hints and Notions." The Decorator and Furnisher, vol. 6, no. 2, May 1885, pp. 61-68. JSTOR, ezproxy.umuc.edu/login?url=www.jstor.org/stable/25584271.

List that source by title in your works cited list. The title should be followed by the name of the source in the citation, and the remainder of the citation composed as appropriate for the source type. Alphabetize reference list entries beginning with a title using the primary word of the title (excluding a, an, or the).

("Hints and Notions" 61)

In-text citations should include the title and the page number(s) of the text you are quoting or referring to, with the titles of articles in quotations, and the titles of books or Web sites italicized. In cases where the title contains a colon, use only the text before the colon in the in-text citation.



Titles

Titles of books, periodicals, art works, reports and Web sites are italicized. Please check the appropriate sample citation on this page to make sure you are using italics correctly.

Dates

With the exception of May, June and July, the names of the months must be abbreviated in MLA works cited lists as follows:

  • January = Jan.
  • February = Feb.
  • March = Mar.
  • April = Apr.
  • August = Aug.
  • September = Sept.
  • October= Oct.
  • November = Nov.
  • December = Dec.

Undated Sources: When the source you are citing has no publication date, simply omit that part of the citation. Do not write "No date" or "N.d.".

Source

Example

No date given

Jane Austen Society of Australia. "Sense & Sensibility." Jane Austen Society of North America. Map. www.jasna.org/info/images/map-ss-1200.jpg.



Volume and Issue Numbers

Volume and issue numbers are often not available for articles in online periodicals. In these cases simply follow the date of the magazine or journal with a period in your works cited list citation, omitting the volume number where necessary.

Source

Example

Journal volume and issue number available

Child and Family Behavior Therapy, vol. 26, no.1, 2004, pp. 88-96.

Online periodical where volume and issue numbers are not given

Journal of Family Counseling, 2004.



Page Numbers


Source

Example

Page range whose first number is over 100

125-35 (not 125-135)

3200-22 (not 3200-3222)

Do not repeat any numbers that can be easily inferred by the reader. This is done to minimize the length of works cited lists.

Online periodical where page numbers are not given

Persuasions, vol. 35, no. 1, 2014, www.jasna.org/persuasions/on-line/vol35no1/byrd.html.

Simply omit page numbers and give the URL after the publication date.



Citing a Source within a Source

Scenario: You read an article by Robbins that cites, on page 270, another article by Wills. You want to cite Will's article, but you have not read Wills's article itself.

Works Cited List

In-Text Citation

Robbins, Michael. "Paul Muldoon's Covert Operations." Modern Philology, vol. 109, no. 2, 2011, pp. 266-99. JSTOR, doi:10.1086/663233.

Your Works Cited list will contain the article you read, by Robbins. Your Works Cited list will NOT contain a citation for Wills's article.

Wills (cited in Robbins 270) notes that...

Your in-text citation gives credit to Wills and shows the source in which you found Wills's idea.

If Robbins directly quotes another author and you want to use that direct quotation, include the abbreviation "qtd. in." For example:

As Freud wrote, "He himself, however, had not noticed this glaringly obvious connection" (qtd. in Robbins 272).



DOIs and URLs

Use a DOI number if one is available. Otherwise use a URL (particularly a  permalink or stable URL, if one is available), and remove the beginning "http://" or "https://" from the link in your citation.

Source

Example

DOI

Robbins, Michael. "Paul Muldoon's Covert Operations." Modern Philology, vol. 109, no. 2, 2011, pp. 266-99. JSTOR, doi:10.1086/663233.

URL

Cohen, Lara Langer. "Emily Dickinson's Teenage Fanclub." The Emily Dickinson Journal, vol. 23, no. 1, 2014, muse.jhu.edu/article/543643.

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Articles

Academic Journals:


Source

Works Cited List

Library database

Robbins, Michael. "Paul Muldoon's Covert Operations." Modern Philology, vol. 109, no. 2, 2011, pp. 266-99. JSTOR, doi:10.1086/663233.

Free Web

Cohen, Lara Langer. "Emily Dickinson's Teenage Fanclub." The Emily Dickinson Journal, vol. 23, no. 1, 2014, muse.jhu.edu/article/543643.

In print

Jordan, Stephanie. "Mark Morris Marks Purcell: 'Dido and Aeneas' as Danced Opera." Dance Research, vol. 29, no. 2, 2011, pp. 167-213.

More info

Tip:

  • Include volume and issue number (example: vol. 23, no. 1) when both are available.

Magazines:

-Daily or Weekly Magazines


Source

Works Cited List

Library database

Updike, John. "Dreamy Wilderness." The New Yorker, vol. 84, no. 35, 3 Nov. 2008, p. 112. Academic OneFile, search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=edsgao&AN=edsgcl.188512674&site=eds-live&scope=site.

Free Web

Grossman, Lev. "Jhumpa Lahiri: The Quiet Laureate." Time, 8 May 2008, content.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,1738511,00.html.

In print

Aviv, Rachel. "Captain of Her Soul: The Philosopher Martha Nussbaum's Emotions." The New Yorker, vol. 92, no. 22, 25 July 2016, pp. 34-43.

More info



-Monthly Magazines


Source

Works Cited List

Library database

Newman, Judith. "Funny Girl." Ladies Home Journal, vol. 31, no. 5, June 2014, pp. 42-47. MasterFILE Premier, search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=f5h&AN=96041993&login.asp&site=ehost-live&scope=site.

Free Web

Brady, Heather. "The Well-hidden World of Whiskey Aging." National Geographic, 29 July 2016, www.nationalgeographic.com/people-and-culture/food/the-plate/2016/07/whiskey-distilling-production-entrepreneurs-market-science.

In print

Beard, Alison. "Life's Work." Harvard Business Review, vol. 93, no. 4, Apr. 2015, p. 116.

More info

Tip:

  • When an issue of a magazine covers several months, the name of the first and last month in the range should be given in the citation, separated by a dash, for example: Apr.-May 2003.

Newspapers


Source

Works Cited List

Library database

Mewshaw, Michael. "David Foster Wallace, a Fan and Elegant Analyst of Tennis." Washington Post, 19 June 2016, p. B6. ProQuest News & Newspapers, ezproxy.umuc.edu/login?url=http://search.proquest.com/docview/1797768833?accountid=14580.

Free Web

Michaels, Andrew. "Howard Police Teach Life Lessons to Youth Through Chess." Baltimore Sun, 23 Feb. 2016, www.baltimoresun.com/news/maryland/howard/columbia/ph-ho-cf-chess-club-hcpd-0225-20160222-story.html.

In print

Brown, Patricia Leigh. "Tiffany Glass and Other Tales from the Crypt." New York Times, 5 Sept. 1999, pp. A1+.

More info

Tip:

  • When an article appears on nonconsecutive pages (for example A1 and A6) give only the first page number followed by a "+" as shown above. Give the page number on which the material you've used appears in your in-text citation, for example: (Brown A6).

Encyclopedia Articles


Source

Works Cited List

Library database

Myers, Kathleen Ann. "Juana Inés de la Cruz, Sor." The Oxford Encyclopedia of Women in World History, edited by Bonnie G. Smith, Oxford UP, 2008. Oxford Reference, www.oxfordreference.com/view/10.1093/acref/9780195148909.001.0001/acref-9780195148909-e-541.

More info



Book, Film and Product Reviews


Source

Works Cited List

Library database

Grimes, William. "Beyond Mandalay, the Road to Isolation and Xenophobia." Review of The River of Lost Footsteps: Histories of Burma, by Thant Myint-U. New York Times, 13 Dec. 2006, pp. E8+. ProQuest, ezproxy.umuc.edu/login?url=http://search.proquest.com/docview/433471566?accountid=14580.

An untitled book, film, or product review (for example, a review covering multiple works):

Guha, Martin. Review of Fleeting Pleasures: A History of Intoxicants, by Mervyn London, and Substance Use among Young People in Urban Environments, by Isidore S. Obot and Shekhar Saxena. Journal of Mental Health, vol. 15, no. 2, 2006, pp. 713-16. PsycARTICLES, ezproxy.umuc.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=psyh&AN=2006-22219-010&site=eds-live&scope=site.

In print

Grimes, William. "Beyond Mandalay, the Road to Isolation and Xenophobia." Review of The River of Lost Footsteps: Histories of Burma, by Thant Myint-U. New York Times, 13 Dec. 2006, pp. E8+.

An untitled book, film, or product review (for example, a review covering multiple works):

Guha, Martin. Review of Fleeting Pleasures: A History of Intoxicants, by Mervyn London, and Substance Use among Young People in Urban Environments, by Isidore S. Obot and Shekhar Saxena. Journal of Mental Health, vol. 15, no. 2, 2006, pp. 713-16.

More info

Tip:

  • The name of the work being reviewed should be preceded by "Rev.", and italics or other formatting done as appropriate for items reviewed and the source of the review itself.

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Books


Source

Works Cited List

Basic book

Jans, Nick. The Last Light Breaking: Life among Alaska's Inupiat Eskimos. Alaska Northwest Books, 1993.

Edited book

Miller, John, and Tim Smith, editors. Cape Cod Stories: Tales from Cape Cod, Nantucket, and Martha's Vineyard. Chronicle Books, 1996.

Please see the sample citation for a chapter or article in an anthology below for information on citing a component of an edited collection.

Numbered edition other than the first

Wardle, Elizabeth, and Doug Downs, editors. Writing About Writing: A College Reader. 2nd ed., Bedford/St. Martin's, 2014.

Revised edition

Culliney, John L. Islands in a Far Sea: The Fate of Nature in Hawai'i. Rev. ed., U of Hawai'i P, 2006.

Multi-volume set

Green, Constance McLaughlin. Washington. Princeton UP, 1962-63. 2 vols.

In-text citation:(Green 1: 112-14)
"1" is the volume number.

Chapter or article in an anthology

Toibin, Colm. "Send My Roots Rain: Gerard Manley Hopkins." Not Less Than Everything, edited by Catherine Wolff, HarperOne, 2013, 284-99.

If the piece being cited was previously published, give the original date of publication after its title. The page numbers of the chapter or article should follow publication information for the book in your citation.

More info

Note on publisher element:

  • MLA citation style no longer includes the publisher's city, only the publisher's name.
  • If the publisher's name includes "University" or "Press," abbreviate those, without periods, for example:
    • Princeton UP, 2014.
    • U of Pittsburgh P, 1994.

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E-Books


Source

Works Cited List

Library database

Barkan, Leonard. Mute Poetry, Speaking Pictures. Princeton UP, 2013. eBook Collection (EBSCOhost), ezproxy.umuc.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=nlebk&AN=503029&site=eds-live&scope=site&profile=edsebook.

Free Web

Seton, Ernest Thompson. The Arctic Prairies: A Canoe-Journey of 2,000 Miles in Search of the Caribou. C. Scribner's Sons, 1911. Project Gutenberg,www.gutenberg.org/ebooks/6818.

Book chapter from a library database (suggested format)

Thompson, Kate. "Journal Writing as a Therapeutic Tool." Writing Cures: An Introductory Handbook of Writing in Counselling and Psychotherapy, edited by Gillie Bolton, Routledge, 2004, pp. 72-84. eBook Collection (EBSCOhost), ezproxy.umuc.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=nlebk&AN=116959&site=eds-live&scope=site&profile=edsebook.

Library databases may include chapters from books. Information about the publisher of a book can often be found in the description of the chapter in the database. Author and publisher information may be omitted from your citation if it is not available.

More info



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Web Sites


Source

Works Cited List

Author is an individual

Inskeep, Steve. "In Iran, A Poet's 700-Year-Old Verses Still Set Hearts Aflame." NPR, 12 Feb. 2016, www.npr.org/sections/parallels/2016/02/12/466408554/in-iran-a-poets-700-year-old-verses-still-set-hearts-aflame.

The publisher of the Web site, NPR, goes after the title of the Web page.

Author is an organization

Poetry Foundation. "Paul Laurence Dunbar." 2016, www.poetryfoundation.org/poems-and-poets/poets/detail/paul-laurence-dunbar.

The publisher of the Web site, the Poetry Foundation, is used as the author because no individual author of the Web page content is named on the page.

More info



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Online Classroom Materials


Source

Works Cited List

Course module in UMUC online classroom

UMUC. "What Is Research?" Course module in UMUC LIBS 150 online classroom, Summer 2016, learn.umuc.edu/d2l/le/content/147066/viewContent/6332908/View.

No official MLA format for citing online classroom materials exists. This is merely a recommended format to use in citing such documents.

More info



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Technical and Research Reports


Source

Works Cited List

Free Web

United States. Government Accountability Office. Information Security: Concerted Effort Needed to Consolidate and Secure Internet Connections at Federal Agencies. Mar. 2010, www.gao.gov/assets/310/301876.pdf.

In print

Information Security: Concerted Effort Needed to Consolidate and Secure Internet Connections at Federal Agencies. United States Government Accountability Office, Mar. 2010.

More info



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Dissertations and Theses

MLA does not provide official citation formats for dissertations and theses retrieved from online sources, but we recommend the use of the following:

Dissertations


Source

Works Cited List

Dissertations and Theses database

Pecore, Joanna Theresa. "Sounding the Spirit of Cambodia: The Living Tradition of Khmer Music and Dance-Drama in a Washington, D.C. Community." Dissertation, U of Maryland, College Park, 2004. Dissertations and Theses, ezproxy.umuc.edu/login?url=http://search.proquest.com/docview/305175282?accountid=14580.

Free Web

Caprette, Christopher L. "Conquering the Cold Shudder: The Origin and Evolution of Snake Eyes." Dissertation, Ohio State U, 2005, rave.ohiolink.edu/etdc/view?acc_num=osu1111184984.

In print

Caprette, Christopher L. "Conquering the Cold Shudder: The Origin and Evolution of Snake Eyes." Dissertation, Ohio State U, 2005.

More info



Master's Theses


Source

Works Cited List

Dissertations and Theses database

Harzbecker, Joseph John. "Life and Death in Washington, D.C.: An Analysis of the Mortality Census of 1850." Master's thesis, U of Massachusetts, Boston, 1999. Dissertations and Theses, ezproxy.umuc.edu/login?url=http://search.proquest.com/docview/304573667?accountid=14580.

Free Web

Angelova, Anelia Nedelcheva. "Data Pruning." Master's thesis, California Institute of Technology, 2004, resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechETD:etd-05282004-000943.

In print

Angelova, Anelia Nedelcheva. "Data Pruning." Master's thesis, California Institute of Technology, 2004.

More info

Tip:

  • For Masters of Science theses, replace "MA" with "MS".

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Images

MLA provides limited guidance on citing images: if you are unable to cite the image that you need to using the formats below, please contact us for assistance.

Titled Image


Source

Works Cited List

Library database

Martin, Agnes. Morning. 1965. Painting. Tate Gallery, London. Oxford Reference, www.oxfordreference.com/view/10.1093/acref/9780195335798.001.0001/acref-9780195335798-e-1302.

Free Web

Rousseau, Henri. The Ship in the Storm. 1896. Painting. Musee de l'Orangerie, Paris, www.musee-orangerie.fr/en/artwork/ship-storm.

The collection which owns the image should be included in your citation along with its location as shown above.

Image reproduced in a printed source

Rousseau, Henri. The Ship in the Storm. 1896. Painting. Musee de l'Orangerie, Paris. Henri Rousseau: Jungles in Paris. By Claire Fresches, et al. National Gallery of Art, 2006. p. 232.

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Untitled Image

If an image is untitled, create a brief, descriptive title for it. Do not italicize this title or place it in quotes, and capitalize only the first word and any proper nouns.

Source

Works Cited List

Library database

Massachusetts Historical Society. Seal of the society set in a landscape with ornaments. Proceedings of the Massachusetts Historical Society, vol. 17, 1879-1880, p. iii. JSTOR, ezproxy.umuc.edu/login?url=http://www.jstor.org/stable/25079540.

Image reproduced in a printed source

Muybridge, Eadweard. Photograph of a horse running. 1887. National Gallery, London. Eadweard Muybridge: The Father of the Motion Picture. By Gordon Hendricks. Grossman, 1975. p. 202.

Give the number of the page that the image appears on after the book's publication information.

More info

Tip:

  • If known, the collection which owns the image should be included in your citation along with its location as shown above.

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Streaming Videos


Source

Works Cited List

Free Web

McGregor, Wayne. "A Choreographer's Creative Process in Real Time." TED, June 2012. www.ted.com/talks/wayne_mcgregor_a_choreographer_s_creative_process_in_real_time.

More info



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Interviews and E-mail Messages


Source

Works Cited List

Interviews

Brown, Jane. Personal interview. 18 Nov. 2006.

Smith, John. Telephone interview. 12 Aug. 2006.

Whiting, Jennifer. E-mail interview. 2-10 Dec. 2005.

To cite an interview you have conducted as part of your research, give the name of the person you interviewed, the type of interview, and the date or range of dates.

E-mail message

Doe, Jane. "Re: Why Poetry Matters." Received by John Smith, 1 Aug. 2016.

Give the name of the person who wrote the email. The title is the subject line of the email. For "Received by," the name will usually be your own. Finish with the date of the email.

More info



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