Napro Research Papers

NaProTECHNOLOGY — A Major Breakthrough In Monitoring and Maintaining a Woman's Reproductive and Gynecological Health

NaProTECHNOLOGY (Natural Procreative Technology) is a new women's health science that monitors and maintains a woman's reproductive and gynecological health. It provides medical and surgical treatments that cooperate completely with the reproductive system.

Thirty years of scientific research in the study of the normal and abnormal states of the menstrual and fertility cycles have unraveled their mysteries.

NaProTECHNOLOGY — A Major Breakthrough.

This is the first women's health science to network family planning with reproductive health monitoring and maintenance. It is a fertility-care based medical approach rather than a fertility-control approach to family planning and gynecological health.

NaProTECHNOLOGY uses the Creighton Model FertilityCare™ System biomarkers to monitor easily and objectively the occurrence of various hormonal events during the menstrual cycle. NaProtracking provides valid information that can be interpreted by a woman and by physicians who are specifically trained in this system.

Unlike common suppressive or destructive approaches, NaProTECHNOLOGY works cooperatively with the procreative and gynecologic systems. When these systems function abnormally, NaProTECHNOLOGY identifies the problems and cooperates with the menstrual and fertility cycles that correct the condition, maintain the human ecology, and sustain the procreative potential.

Women now have an opportunity to know and understand the causes of the symptoms from which they suffer.

About the Developer

Thomas W. Hilgers, MD, is the director of the Pope Paul VI Institute for the Study of Human Reproduction and the National Center for Women's Health in Omaha, Nebraska. Working at the St. Louis University and Creighton University Schools of Medicine, Hilgers and his coworkers developed the Creighton Model FertilityCare System. Dr. Hilgers is currently a senior medical consultant in obstetrics, gynecology, and reproductive medicine and surgery at the Pope Paul VI Institute. He is a clinical professor in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology at Creighton University School of Medicine, Omaha, Nebraska. In 1994, Dr. Hilgers was appointed to permanent membership to the Pontifical Academy for Life. In 2004, Dr. Hilgers published the definitive textbook on natural procreative technology, The Medical and Surgical Practice of NaProTECHNOLOGY.

For more information on the research and services of Pope Paul VI Institute, please visit us at the Pope Paul VI website.

Pope Paul VI Institute
6901 Mercy Road
Omaha, Nebraska 68106
www.popepaulvi.com

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Terms of Use, Copyright 2018, Pope Paul VI Institute for the Study of Human Reproduction. All rights reserved. *"NaProTECHNOLOGY" is a registered trademark of the Pope Paul VI Institute for the Study of Human Reproduction. It can be freely used by any person or entity so long as its use reflects the medical concepts and values expressed in the textbook The Medical & Surgical Practice of NaProTECHNOLOGY.

Peer-Reviewed and Academic Literature That Supports NaProTECHNOLOGY

Click on one of the following to jump to that section!

    NaProTECHNOLOGYThomas W. Hilgers MD, DIP. ABOG, ABLS, SRS — Biographical SketchCurriculum Vitae:
      Curriculum Vitae: BooksCurriculum Vitae: Book ChaptersCurriculum Vitae: Films and VideotapesCurriculum Vitae: ArticlesCurriculum Vitae: Poster PresentationsCurriculum Vitae: Oral Presentations
    Peer-Reviewed and Academic References as a Foundation to NaProTECHNOLOGY:
      Scientific Foundations of the Creighton ModelTrends and Deficiencies in Infertility TreatmentMedical Risks of InfertilityNaProTECHNOLOGY in InfertilityDisorders of Human OvulationFollicular and Luteal Phase DeficienciesHormones vs. ArtimonesRecurrent Spontaneous AbortionEffectiveness of NaProTECHNOLOGY in the Treatment of InfertilityPremenstrual SyndromePostpartum DepressionDating the Beginning of PregnancyUsing Progesterone Support During PregnancyPrevention of Preterm BirthSurgical NaProTECHNOLOGY

NaProTECHNOLOGY

For physicians, especially obstetrician-gynecologists, who hear about NaProTECHNOLOGY for the first time, they are often concerned that there is not any peer-reviewed medical literature or academic literature which supports this approach. However, over the last 30 to 40 years, there has been a large volume of literature which has been published and presents itself as foundational work to both the Creighton Model FertilityCare™ System and the women’s health science of NaProTECHNOLOGY.

It is of interest to note that over this period of time, there have been literally hundreds of thousands of scientific papers published in the medical literature relative to obstetrics, gynecology and reproductive medicine. It is generally not possible for practicing physicians, or even those in academic medicine, to keep abreast of that volume of literature. As a result, different medical organizations assist the practicing physician in “packaging” the results of various literature. This then becomes the platform of information upon which physicians support their own approach to obstetrics, gynecology and reproductive medicine.

With the advent of the oral contraceptive in 1960, followed rapidly by the legalization of induced abortion and the wide availability of in vitro fertilization (artificial reproductive technologies), contraception, sterilization, abortion and the artificial reproductive technologies have become a mainstay for physicians practicing in this field. In addition, organizations such as the American College of Obstetrics and Gynecology which strongly supports this approach to medicine, wrap their committee opinions in this approach. While this is being accomplished, a wide availability of medical literature has been slipped aside and, for most physicians, completely lost to their access. In fact, residency programs for the training of young physicians tend to follow these approaches and it has built a profession which often thinks there is no other alternative.

The approach of NaProTECHNOLOGY requires a different way of problem solving. It is not in the general thrust of the profession, but, at the same time, this is not the same as saying this is not scientifically sound. In fact, there has been a large volume of literature that has been published over these years which supports the approach taken in NaProTECHNOLOGY.

This section of the web site presents some of those references. First of all, it begins with a biographical sketch of Thomas W. Hilgers, MD, the Director of the Pope Paul VI Institute, where most of the foundational research for this has been undertaken. Secondly, it presents a partial list of Dr. Hilgers’ peer-reviewed and academic publications. Thirdly, it presents a large volume of literature citations where, if the physician is willing to dig in, read and evaluate, the physician will find the data that supports the NaProTECHNOLOGY approach.

In those sections, citations supporting the scientific foundations of the Creighton Model, trends and deficiencies in infertility treatment, the medical risks of infertility, NaProTECHNOLOGY in infertility, disorders of human ovulation, follicular and luteal phase deficiencies, hormones versus artimones, recurrent spontaneous abortion, the effectiveness of NaProTECHNOLOGY in infertility, premenstrual syndrome, postpartum depression, the dating of the beginning of pregnancy, progesterone support during pregnancy, the prevention of preterm birth, and surgical NaProTECHNOLOGY are presented in an exhaustive fashion.

It should be noted, in reviewing this, that the textbook, The Medical & Surgical Practice of NaProTECHNOLOGY, should serve as foundational reading for how this literature is interpreted and integrated along with the additional research that has been conducted in a voluminous fashion at the Pope Paul VI Institute for the Study of Human Reproduction. It is prudent to try to integrate this literature with that textbook to appreciate and understand how it is being interpreted and integrated.

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Thomas W. Hilgers, MD, DIP. ABOG, ABLS, SRS

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH

Dr. Thomas Hilgers is the founder and director of the Pope Paul VI Institute for the Study of Human Reproduction, in Omaha, Nebraska. The Institute is dedicated to research, education and service in the areas of human reproduction within the philosophical and moral framework found in the teachings of the Catholic Church. He currently serves there as a Senior Medical Consultant in Obstetrics, Gynecology, Reproductive Medicine and Surgery. He is board certified in obstetrics and gynecology and gynecologic laser surgery and is a member of the Society of Reproductive Surgeons.

He has served on the faculty of medicine at St. Louis University School of Medicine and Creighton University School of Medicine in their Departments of Obstetrics and Gynecology. While at Creighton, he founded and directed the Creighton University Natural Family Planning Education and Research Center. Along with his colleagues, he is the developer of the Creighton Model FertilityCare™ System, a thoroughly standardized modification of the Billings Ovulation Method. His ongoing medical research and application of this system has led to the development of the new women’s health science called NaProTECHNOLOGY. In July 2004, he published the first definitive medical textbook on this new science, The Medical and Surgical Practice of NaProTECHNOLOGY.

He is also a founder of the American Academy of Fertility Care Professionals, FertilityCare™ Centers of America and FertilityCare™ Centers International.

He is the author of nearly 113 professional books, book chapters, and articles. He has also produced 11 videotapes, presented 7 different poster sessions at professional meetings and countless numbers of audiotapes. In addition, he is the recipient of 5 different research awards and has been awarded an honorary doctorate of humane letters from Assumption College, Worcester, Massachusetts and an honorary doctorate of public health from Franciscan University of Steubenville, Ohio. In 1994, Pope John Paul II appointed him to full membership in the Pontifical Academy for Life and with his wife, Susan he served for five years on the Pontifical Council for the Family. In 1997, the Nebraska Family Council named Dr. Hilgers Physician of the Year. In 2001, he was presented with the John Cardinal Wright Award by the Fellowship of Catholic Scholars and in October, 2003, he received the Linacre Award, the highest award given by the Catholic Medical Association. The Hilgers are the parents of four sons and one daughter.

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Curriculum Vitae: Books

    Wallace M and Hilgers TW (Eds.): The Gift of Life: The Proceedings of a Conference on the Vatican Instruction on the Respect for Human Life.  Pope Paul VI Institute Press. Omaha, Nebraska, 1990. Hilgers TW:  The Medical Applications of Natural Family Planning: A Contemporary Approach to Women’s Health Care. Pope Paul VI Institute Press.  Omaha, Nebraska, 1991. Hilgers TW: The Scientific Foundations of the Ovulation Method.  Pope Paul VI Institute Press. Omaha, Nebraska 1995.                Hilgers TW, Prebil AM, Daly KD, Hilgers SK: The Picture Dictionary of the Creighton ModelFertilityCareSystem, Pope Paul VI Institute Press, Omaha, NE, 2001. Hilgers TW: The Creighton ModelFertilityCareSystem, An Introductory Booklet for New Users. Pope Paul VI Institute Paul VI Institute Press, Omaha, NE, 2002. Hilgers TW: Reproductive Anatomy and Physiology: A Primer for FertilityCare Professionals. Pope Paul VI Institute Press, Omaha, NE, 2002. Hilgers TW, Daly KD, Hilgers SK, Prebil AM: The Creighton ModelFertilityCareSystem: A Standardized Case Management Approach to Teaching. Book I — Basic Teaching Skills, 2nd Edition, Pope Paul VI Institute Press, Omaha, NE, 2002. Hilgers TW, Hilgers SK, Prebil AM, Daly KD: TheCreighton ModelFertilityCareSystem: A Standardized Case Management Approach to Teaching. Book II — Advanced Teaching Skills, Pope Paul VI Institute Press, Omaha, NE, 2003. Hilgers TW, Prebil AM, Daly KD, Hilgers SK: TheCreighton ModelFertilityCareSystem Core Curriculum, 2nd Edition, Pope Paul VI Institute Press, Omaha, NE, 2003. Hilgers TW, The Medical and Surgical Practice ofNaProTECHNOLOGY, Pope Paul VI Institute Press, Omaha, NE 2004.

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Curriculum Vitae: Book Chapters

    Hilgers TW: “Hormonal Profiles in Users of the Ovulation Method.” In: Santamaria J and Billings J, (Eds.) Human Love and Human Life. Polding Press. Melbourne, 1979. Hilgers TW: “An Obstetrician Looks at Natural Family Planning.” In: Santamaria J and Billings J, (Eds.) Human Love and Human Life. Polding Press. Melbourne, 1979. Hilgers TW: “The New Technologies of Birth.” In: McCarthy D (ed.): The New Technologies of Birth and Death: Medical, Legal and Moral Dimensions. Proceedings of the Workshop for Bishops of the United States and Canada. Dallas, Texas, January 28-31, 1980. Pope John XXIII Medical-Moral Research and Education Center, St. Louis, MO, 1980. Hilgers TW: “Human Sexuality: Contemporary Lessons to be Learned.” In: Proceedings of Sixth Combined Conference of the Guild of St. Luke and SS. Cosmas and Damian. Horizons of Medicine — Manipulation of Man. Masterton, New Zealand. Nov. 1-4, 1984. Hilgers TW: “The Correlation of Ovulation and Other Biologic Parameters with Natural Family Planning.” In: The Natural Regulation of Female Fertility. The Proceedings of an International Conference on Natural Fertility Regulation held March 19-21, 1988, Bologna, Italy. Tecnoprint, via del Legatore 3, Bologna, Italy, pp. 131-142. Hilgers TW: “ The Psychosexual Aspects of Natural Family Planning.” In: The Natural Regulation of Female Fertility. The Proceedings of an International Conference on Natural Fertility Regulation held March 19-21, 1988, Bologna, Italy. Tecnoprint, via del Legatore 3, Bologna, Italy, pp. 181-192. Hilgers TW: “The Ovulation Method and the Study of Reproductive Abnormalities.” In: The Proceedings of the Workshop on Natural Fertility Regulation Today. Sponsored by the      World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland. March 17-19, 1988. Rome, Italy, In Press. Hilgers TW: “Expanding our Human Sexual Horizons.” In: The Gift of Life, Wallace M and Hilgers TW, (Eds.). Pope Paul VI Institute Press, Omaha, Nebraska, 1990, pp. 41-48. Hilgers TW: “Recent Advances in Infertility Evaluation and Treatment.” In: The Gift of Life, Wallace M and Hilgers TW (Eds.); Pope Paul VI Institute Press, Omaha, NE, 1990, pp. 127-148. Hilgers TW: “Family Planning Issues: Norplant, Uterine Isolation and Natural Family Planning.” In: Proceedings of the Eleventh Bishops Workshop — The Interaction of Catholic Bioethics and Secular Society. Edited by Russell Smith, Pope John Center, Braintree, MA, February 5, 1992. Hilgers TW: “Creighton Model Natural Family Planning.” In: The Natural Methods for the Regulation of Fertility: The Authentic Alternative, Trujillo AL and Sgreccia E, (Eds.). Vita e Pensiero, Milano, 1994, pp. 154-168. Hilgers TW: “Prenatal and Pre-Implantation Genetic Diagnosis: Duty or Eugenic Prelude?” In: Human Genome, Human Person and the Society of the Future: The Proceedings of Fourth Assembly Pontifical Academy for Life. Corea J and Sgreccia E (Eds.). Vatican City. Feb. 23-25, 1998. Librareria Editrice Vaticana 000120 Citta del Vaticano, 1999, pp. 173-189.

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Curriculum Vitae: Films and Videotapes

    Hilgers TW: The Beginnings of Human Life. Creighton University Natural Family Planning Education and Research Center, Omaha, NE,1982 — Videotape. Hilgers TW: The Emotional Aspects of Infertility: Experiences of Three Couples. Creighton University Natural Family Planning Education and Research Center, Omaha, NE, 1985 — Videotape. Hilgers TW: Encountering Human Ecology: Natural Family Planning. Pope Paul VI Institute Press, Omaha, NE, 1989 — Videotape. Hilgers TW: Living Proof: A Visual Encounter with the Unborn. Pope Paul VI Institute Press, Omaha, NE, 29 minutes, 1990 — Videotape. Hilgers TW: Visualization Techniques in Infertility.  Pope Paul VI Institute Press. Omaha, NE, 1992, Videotape. Hilgers TW: Living Proof in 3-D: Putting a Face on the Unborn Human Person. Pope Paul VI Institute Press, Omaha, NE, 2000, 15 minutes, Videotape.

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Curriculum Vitae: Articles
    Hilgers TW: “Luteal Phase Defects: Diagnosis and Implications.” In: Seminars in Obstetrics and Gynecology 1971-1972. A publication of the Mayo Graduate School of Medicine. Mayo Clinic. Rochester, Minnesota, 1972. Hilgers TW: “Human Reproduction: Three Issues for the Moral Theologian.” Theological Studies. 38:136-152, March, 1977. Hilgers TW: “The Protection Afforded by the Cervical Mucus in Human Reproduction” Bull. Nat. Fam. Plan. Council Vict. 4:4-12. September, 1977. Hilgers TW: “The Ovulation Method: Ten Years of Research” Linacre Quarterly. November, 1978. Hilgers TW, Abraham GE and Cavanagh D: “Natural Family Planning-I. The Peak Mucus Symptom and Estimated Time Of Ovulation” Obstet. Gynecol. 52:575-582, 1978. Bailey AJ, Hilgers TW: “Feminine Hygiene Products: A Catalog with Commentary.” Int. Rev. Nat. Fam. Plan. 2:233-244, 1978. Hilgers TW, Prebil AM “The Ovulation Method — Vulvar Observations as an Index of Fertility/Infertility.” Obstet. Gynecol. 53:12-22, 1979. Hilgers TW and Bailey AJ: “Natural Family Planning. Quality Control through Applied Research.” In: Proceedings of an NIH Conference on Natural Family Planning. Bethesda, MD, June 1979. Hilgers TW and Bailey AJ: “Natural Family Planning II. — The BBT and Estimated Time of Ovulation.” Obstet. Gynecol. 55:333-339, 1980. Hilgers TW: “A Critical Evaluation of Effectiveness Studies in Natural Family Planning.” In: Proceedings of an International Symposium on Natural Family Planning sponsored by the World Health Organization. Dublin, Ireland, October 8-9, 1979. Hilgers TW, Daly KD, Prebil AM and Hilgers SK: “Natural Family Planning III. — Intermenstrual Symptoms and Estimated Time of Ovulation.” Obstet. Gynecol. 58:345-350, 1981. Hilgers TW, Bailey AJ, Prebil AM and Hilgers SK: “Natural Family Planning IV. — The Identification of Postovulatory Infertility.” Obstet. Gynecol. 58:345-350, 1981. Hilgers TW, Prebil AM, Hilgers SK and Daly KD: “The Occurrence of Ovulation at the Midcycle.” Int. Rev. Nat. Fam. Plan. 4:227, 1980. Vrbicky KW, Wells IC, Hilgers TW, Kable WT, Baumstark JS and Elias CJ: “Evidence for the Involvement of Beta-Endorphin in the Human Menstrual Cycle.” Fertil. Steril. 38: 701-704, 1982. Hilgers TW: “The American Academy of Natural Family Planning.” Int. Rev. Nat. Fam. Plan. 7:306-317, 1983. Hilgers TW: “Continuous Mucus in the Use of the Ovulation Method” Int. Rev. Nat. Fam. Plan. 7:326-341, 1983.30. Hilgers TW: “Current Research in Cervical Mucus.” In: Bernard C (Ed.) Proceedings of the World Conference on the Family of Asia and Australia. Madras India, Jan. 1983. pp.105-112. Hilgers TW: “The Statistical Evaluation of Natural Methods of Family Planning.” Int. Rev. Nat. Fam. Plan. 8:226, 1984. McLean PA and Hilgers TW: “Ovulation Method Charting in Patients Taking Danazol.” Int. Rev. Nat. Fam. Plan. 9:168, 1985. Slacks RM and Hilgers TW: “Advertising Trends in Major Journals of Obstetrics and Gynecology”: 1983. Int. Rev. Nat. Fam. Plan. 9:292, Winter 1985. Hilgers TW: “Professional Program Development in Natural Family Planning”. Linacre Quarterly. 53:42-49, Feb. 1986. LaBarber SA, LaBarber LP, Hilgers TW: “Impact of the NFPP Educational Program on Interns and their Families” Int. Rev. Nat. Fam. Plan. No. 11: 255, 1987. Hilgers TW: “The Objective Assessment of the Vulvar Mucus Cycle.” Int. Rev. Nat. Fam. Plan. 250-258, Fall 1988. Cvetkovich LL, Hilgers TW, Gentrup BB: “Continuous      Mucus Correlation of Point of Change with Preovulatory Rise in Estradiol-17β.” Int. Rev. Nat. Fam. Plan. 12:340-352, 1988. Ricaurte E and Hilgers TW: Complications of 32% Dextran 70 When Used as an Antiadhesion Adjuvant.” J. Repro. Med.,Vol. 34, 8:535-539, Aug. 1989. Hilgers TW, Abraham GE and Prebil, A.M: "The Length of the Luteal Phase”. Int. Rev. Nat. Fam. Plan. 13:99, 1989. Hilgers TW, Dvorak AD, Tamisiea DF, Ellis RL and Yaksich PJ: “Sonographic Definition of the Empty Follicle Syndrome” J. Ultrasound Med. 8:411-416, 1989. Hilgers TW: “The Use of Preovulatory Subcutaneous ‘Booster’ GnRH (self-administered) for Ovulation Induction.” (Abstract). Presented at: Symposium on Modes of Action of GnRH and GnRH Analogs. Serono Symposia, February 26 — March 2, 1991, Scottsdale, AZ. Hilgers TW: “Successful Pregnancy Outcome in Severe Oligospermia with Pulsatile IV GnRH.” (Abstract). Presented at: Symposium on Modes of Action of GnRH and GnRH Analogs. Serono Symposia, February 26 — March, 1991, Scottsdale, AZ. Hilgers TW: “Successful Pregnancies in Kallman’s Syndrome Using Pulsatile IV GnRH.” (Abstract). Presented at: Symposium on Modes of Action of GnRH and GnRH Analogs. Serono Symposia, February 26 — March 2, 1991, Scottsdale, AZ. Vasiliades J, Hilgers TW, Gentrup B, Remsburg J: “Increased Estradiol Concentration of Unknown Origin.” Clinical Chemistry. 37:2152, 1991. Hilgers TW: “A Simple, Safe Technique for Placement of the Veress Needle and Trochar in Laparoscopy” J. Lap. Surg. Vol. 2, 4:189-192, 1992. Hilgers TW, Daly KD, Prebil AM and Hilgers SK: “Cumulative Pregnancy Rates in Patients with Apparently Normal Fertility in Fertility-Focused Intercourse” J. Repro. Med., Vol. 37, 10:864-866, Oct. 1992. Hilgers TW, Kimball CR, Keck SJ, Dvorak AD and Tamisiea DF: “Assessment of the Empty Follicle Syndrome by Transvaginal Sonography” J. Ultrasound. Med. 11:313-316, 1992. Hilgers TW: “Norplant” Linacre Quarterly 60:64, 1993. Hilgers TW: “Life...the (Significant) Other Side of the Coin” Linacre Quarterly 60:78-81, 1993. Hilgers TW: “Scientific Research on the Methods of Diagnosing Fertility." Presented at the Theological and Pastoral Congress for the 25th Anniversary of Humanae Vitae, Vatican City State, Nov. 24-26, 1993. Hilgers TW: “Uterine Isolation” Linacre Quarterly 1:82-87,  1994. Hilgers TW: “The Natural Methods for the Regulation of Fertility: The Authentic Alternative” Linacre Quarterly 62:52-59, 1995. Vasiliades J, Hilgers T, Gentrup B: “Long Term Stability of Hormones in Serum” Clinical Chemistry. 41: S59, July 18, 1995. Hilgers TW and Stanford JB: “Creighton Model NaProEducation Technology for Avoiding Pregnancy: Use Effectiveness” J. Repro. Med. 43: 495-502, June, 1998. Hilgers TW and Yeung P: "Intratubal Pressure Before and After Transcervical Catheterization of the Fallopian Tubes" Fertil. Steril. 1999; 72:174-8. Hilgers TW: “Reproductive Medicine and the Violation of the ‘Free Exercise’ Clause of the United States Constitution” Linacre Quarterly. 69: 79-86, 2002.

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Curriculum Vitae: Poster Presentations

    Hilgers TW: Cervical Mucus Anomalies in Patients with Endometriosis. The Second International Symposium on Endometriosis. May 1-3, 1989, Houston, TX Hilgers TW: Successful Pregnancy Outcome in Severe Oligospermia with Pulsatile GnRH. Symposium on Modes of Action of GnRH and GnRH Analogs, February 26 — March 2, 1991, Scottsdale, AZ Hilgers TW: Successful Pregnancies in Kallmann Syndrome using Pulsatile GnRH. Symposium on Modes of Action of GnRH and GnRH Analogs, February 26 — March 2, 1991, Scottsdale, AZ Hilgers TW: The Use of Preovulatory Subcutaneous “Booster” GnRH (Self-Administered) for Ovulation Induction. Symposium on      Modes of Action on GnRH and GnRH Analogs, February 26 — March 2, 1991, Scottsdale,      AZ Hilgers TW, Yaksich P, Keck S, Fong N: Outcome of Pregnancy by Status of Dominant Follicle as Evaluated by Ultrasound. Ovulation Induction: Basic Science and Clinical Advances — An International Conference. A Ferring Symposium, January 20-22, 1994, Palm Beach, FL Hilgers TW, Yaksich P, Keck S and Fong N: A Comprehensive Classification of Ovulation Disorders      in a Subfertility Population as Defined by Ultrasound. Ovulation Induction: Basic Science and Clinical Advances — An International Conference. A Ferring Symp. Jan.20-22, 1994, Palm Beach, FL Hilgers TW: Hormonal Correlates to Sonographically Identified Ovulatory Defects. 44th Annual Convention. American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine. San Francisco, CA, April 3-4, 2000.

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Curriculum Vitae: Oral Presentations

    Hilgers TW: Pregnancy Achievement and Outcome In Sonographically Observed Spontaneous Ovulation. 44th Annual Convention. American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine. San Francisco, CA, April 4, 2000. Hilgers TW: The Sonographic Assessment of the Cervix Following Cervical Cerclage. 44th Annual Convention. American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine. San Francisco, CA, April 4, 2000.

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Peer-Reviewed and Academic References as a Foundation to NaProTECHNOLOGY

A. Scientific Foundations of the Creighton Model

    Pommerenke WT: American Journal of Obstet Gynecol 52: 1023, 1946. Rydberg E: Acta. Obstet Gynec Scand 29 (fac.1):127, 1948. Cohen MR, Stein IF and Kaye BM: Spinnbarkeit: A Characteristic of Cervical Mucus. Fertil Steril 3: 201, 1952. Smith WT: The Pathology and Treatment of Leucorrhea, Churchill, London, 1855. Sims JM: British Medical Journal, 2: 465-492, 1868. Billings EL and Westmore A: The Billings Method: controlling Fertility Without Drugs or Devices. Random House, New York, New York, 1980. Roland M: A Simple Test for the Determination of Ovulation, Estrogen Activity and Early Pregnancy Using the Cervical Mucus Secretion. Am J Obstet Gynecol 63: 81-89, 1952. Zondek B and Rosen S: Cervical Mucus Arborization: Its Use in the Determination of Corpus Luteum Function. Obstet Gynecol 3: 463-470, 1954. Insler V, Melmed H, Eichenbrenner I., et al: The Cervical Score: A Simple Semiquantative Method for Monitoring of the Menstrual Cycle. Int J Gynec Obstet 10: 223-228, 1972. Clift AF: Early Studies on the Rheology of Cervical Mucus. Am J Obstet Gynecol 134: 829-832, 1979. Cervical Mucus: Present State of Knowledge, In: Cervical Mucus in Human Reproduction. World Health Organization—Colloquium, Published Proceedings, Geneva, Switzerland, 1972. Hilgers TW and Prebil AM: The Ovulation Method—Vulvar Observations as an Index of Fertility/Infertility. Obstet Gynecol 53: 12-22, 1979. Faccioli G, Cortesi S, and Calderoni P: Structure of Human Cervical Mucus Correlation with Plasma Ovarian Hormone Levels. Acta Europaea Fertilitatis. 14:41-50, 1983. Garcia N, Giacchi E, Campo S, et al: Canalization of Human Cervical Mucus. Obstet Gynecol 64: 164-169, 1984. Odeblad E: Cervical Factors. Int Rev Nat Fam Plan 5: 153-162, 1981. Odeblad E: The Mucus Symptoms Length and Subphases During the Fertile Age. Int Rev Nat Fam Plan 10: 303-313, 1986. Odeblad E: The Biophysical Properties of the Cervical-Vaginal Secretions. Int Rev Nat Fam Plan 7: 1-56, 1983. Odeblad E.: The Discovery of Different Types of Cervical Mucus and the Billings Ovulation Method. Bulletin of the Natural Family Planning Council of Victoria. 21: 3-34, Sept. 1994. Odeblad E. Molecular Biology of the Cyclic Changes of Cervical Mucus. Paper presented at the meeting “Scientific Bases and Problems of Natural Fertility Regulation,” sponsored by the Pontifical Academy of Sciences, Vatican City, Italy, Nov. 16, Italy, Nov. 16, 1994. Rudolfsson C: Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and Cytometric Studies on Mucus from Single Cervical Glands. Int J Fert 16: 147-150, 1971. Faccioli G. Hormonal Bases of the Correspondence Between Microscopic and Ultra Microscopic Features of Human Cervical Mucus. Acta Europaea Fertilitatis, 15: 131-136, 1984. Faccioli G: Preliminary Results on the Scanning Electron Microscopic Structure of Infertile Human Cervical Mucus. Acta Europaea Fertilitatis, 15: 381-385, 1984. Takano N, Maekawa I, Takamizawa H: Ultrastructure of Human Cervical Mucus Observed by Cryo-scanning Electron Microscopy. Fertil Steril 32: 604-607, 1979. Ferin J, Thomas, and Johansson EDB: Ovulation Detection. In: Human Reproduction: Conception and Contraception, (Hafez, E.S.E, and Evans, T.N., Eds.) Harper and Row, Hagerstown, Maryland, 1973. Moghissi KS, Syner FN, and Evans TN: A Composite Picture of the Menstrual Cycle. Am J Obstet Gynecol 114: 405-416, 1972. Insler V, Glezerman M, Zeidel L, et al: Fertil Steril 33: 288-293, 1980. Brown JB, Harisson P, Smith MA, et al: Correlations Between the Mucus Symptoms and the Hormonal Markers of Fertility Throughout Reproductive Life. Ovulation Method Research and Reference Centre of Australia, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia, 1981. Billings EL, Billings JJ, Brown JB, et al: Symptoms and Hormonal Changes Accompanying Ovulation. The Lancet, February 5, pp. 282-284, 1972. Flynn AM, and Lynch SS: Cervical Mucus Identification of the Fertile Phase of the Menstrual Cycle. Brit J Obstet Gynaecol 83:545, 1976. Casey JH: The Correlation Between Midcycle Hormonal Profiles, Cervical Mucus and Ovulation in Normal Women. In:Human Love and Human Life. Santamaria, J.N. and Billings, J.J., Eds. The Polding Press, Melbourne Australia, p68, 1979. Hilgers TW, Abraham GE, and Cavanagh D: Natural Family Planning-I. The Peak Symptom and Estimated Time of Ovulation. Obstet Gynecol 52: 575-582, 1978. Cortesi S, Rigoni G, Zen F, et al: Correlation of Plasma Gonadatropins and Ovarian Steroid Pattern with Symptomatic Changes in Cervical Mucus During the Menstrual Cycle in Normal Cycling Women. Contraception. 23: 635-641, 1981. Morishita H, Hashimoto T, Mitani H, et al: Cervical Mucus and Prediction of the Time of Ovulation. Gyn Obstet Invest 10: 157-162, 1979. Hilgers TW: Hormonal Profiles in Users of the Ovulation Method. In: Human Love and Human Life. Santamaria, J.N. and Billings, J.J., Eds. The Polding Press, Melbourne, Australia, p59, 1979. Leader A, Wiseman D, Taylor PJ: The Prediction of Ovulation: A Comparison of the Basal Body Temperature Graph, Cervical Mucus Score and Realtime Pelvic Ultrasonography. Fertil Steril 43: 385-388, 1985. Daily DC, Reuter K, Cohen S, et al: Follicle Size by Ultrasound versus Cervical Mucus Quality: Normal and Abnormal Patterns in Spontaneous Cycles. Fertil Steril 51: 598-603, 1989. Nulsen J, Wheeler C, Ausmanas M, et al: Cervical Mucus Changes in Relationship to Urinary Luteinizing Hormone. Fertil Steril 48: 783-786, 1987. Depares J, Ryder, REJ, Walker SM, et al: Ovarian Ultrasonography Highlights Precision of Symptoms of Ovulation as Markers of Ovulation. Brit Med J 292: 1562, 1986. Taylor RS, Woods JB and Guapo M.: Correlation of Vaginal Hormonal Cytograms with Cervical Mucus Symptoms. J Reprod Med 31, 1986. Hilgers, TW, Prebil AM, Daly KD, Hilgers SK: Observation of Mucus Survey. St. Louis University Natural Family Planning Center, 1977 (unpublished manuscript). Hilgers TW, Prebil AM: The Statistical Parameters of the Mucus Cycle: A Study of 600 Cycles. St. Louis Univeristy Natural Family Planning Center, 1977 (unpublished manuscript). Hilgers TW: Psychodynamics of the Use of the Ovulation Method. Unpublished manuscript. Creighton University Natural Family Planning Education and Research Center. Omaha, Nebraska, 1978. Fehring RJ, Lawrence DM, Sauvage CM: Self-esteem, Spiritual Well-being and Intimacy: A Comparison Among Couples Using NFP and Oral Contraceptives. Int Rev Nat Fam Plan 13 (3/4): 227-236, 1989. Fehring RJ and Lawrence DM: Spiritual Well-being, Self-esteem and Intimacy Among Couples Using Natural Family Planning. Linacre Quarterly. pp. 18-29, August 1994. Hilgers TW: The Statistical Evaluation of Natural Methods of Family Planning. Int Rev Nat Fam Plan 8: 226-264, 1984. Tietze C and Lewit S: Statistical Evaluation of Contraceptive Methods: Use-Effectiveness and Extended Use-Effectiveness. Demography 5: 931, 1968. Hilgers TW and Stanford JB: The Use-Effectiveness to Avoid Pregnancy of the Creighton Model NaProEducation Technology: A Meta-Analysis of Prospective Trials. J Repro Med 43:495-502, June1998. Hilgers TW, Prebil AM, and Daly KD: The Effectiveness of the Ovulation Method as a Means of Achieving and Avoiding Pregnancy. Paper presented at the Education Phase III Continuing Education Conference for Natural Family Planning Practitioners, Mercy Fontenelle Center, Omaha, Nebraska, July 1980. Doud J: Use Effectiveness of the Creighton Model of NFP. Int Rev Nat Fam Plan 9:54-72, 1985. Howard MP: Use Effectiveness of the Ovulation Method (Creighton Model) of Natural Family Planning. Paper presented at the Ninth Annual Meeting of the American Academy of Natural Family Planning, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, July 1990. Fehring RJ, Lawrence D, and Philpot C: Use Effectiveness of the Creighton Model Ovulation Method of Natural Family Planning. J Obstet Gynecol, and Neonat Nurs 23: 303-309, 1994. Tietze C: The Clinical Effectiveness of Contraceptive Methods. Am J Obstet Gynecol 78: 650-656, 1959. Tietze C and Lewit S: The IUD and the Pill: Extended Use-Effectiveness. Fam Plan Perspec 3: 53-55, 1971. Tietze C and Lewit S: Use Effectiveness of Oral and Intrauterine Contraception. Fertil Steril 22:508-513, 1971. Marshall J: A Field Trial of the Basal Body Temperature Method of Regulation of Births. The Lancet, pp8-10, July 6,1968. Klaus H: Natural Family Planning: A Review. Obstet Gynecol Surv 37: 128-150, 1982. Hilgers TW, Daly KD, Prebil AM, et al: Cumulative Pregnancy Rates in Patients with Apparently Normal Fertility and Fertility-Focused Intercourse. J Reprod Med10: 864-866, 1992. Hilgers TW, Prebil AM, Daly KD, and Hilgers SK: The Picture Dictionary of the CREIGHTON MODEL FertilityCareTMSystem. Pope Paul VI Institute Press, Omaha, Nebraska, 1999.

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B. Trends and Deficiencies In Infertility Treatment

    Tietze C, Guttmacher AF, Rusin S: Time Required for Conception in 1727 Planned Pregnancies. Fertil Steril 1:338, 1950. Bayer SR, Alper MM, Penzias AS: The Boston IVF Handbook of Infertility. Parthenon Publishing Group, Boca Raton, 2002. Chandra A, Stephen EH: Impaired Fecundity in the United States: 1982-1995, Family Planning Perspectives. 30:34-42, 1998. Stephen EH, Chandra A: Updated Projections of Infertility in the United States: 1995-2025. Fertil Steril 70:30-34, 1998. Linn S, Schoenbaum SC, Monson RR, et al: Delay in Conception for Former “Pill” Users. JAMA 247:629-632, 1982. Lukse MP, Vacc NA: Grief, Depression and Coping in Women Undergoing Infertility Treatment. Obstet Gynecol 93:245-251, 1999. Reading AE, Kerin J: Psychological Aspects of Providing Infertility Service. J Reprod Med. 34:861-871, 1989. Bachu A, O’Connell M: Fertility of American Women: Population Characteristics. Current Population Reports. June 1998 U.S. Department of Commerce, Economics and Statistics Administration, U.S. Census Bureau, June 1998 (Issued September 2000). Hull MGR, Cahill DJ: Female Infertility. Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America. 27:851-876, 1998. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am. Hornstin MD, Schust D: Infertility. In: Berek JS, Adashi EY, Hillard PA (Eds) Novak’s Gynecology. 12th Edition, Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore, 1996. Rein MS, Barbieri RL: The Infertile Couple. In: Kistner’s Gynecology and Women’s Health. 7th Ed. Ryan KJ, Berkowitz RS, Barbieri RL, Dunaif A (Eds). Mosby. St. Louis, 1999. Glatstein IZ, Harlow, BL, Hornstin MD: Practice Patterns Among Reproductive Endocrinologists: The Infertility Evaluation. Fertil Steril 67:443-451, 1997. Guermandi E, Vegetti W, Bianchi M, et al: Reliability of Ovulation Tests in Infertile Women. Obstet Gynecol 97:92-96, 2001. Al-Badawi IA, Fluker MR, Bebbington MW: Diagnostic Laparoscopy in Infertile Women with Normal Hysterosalpingograms. J Reprod Med 44:953-957, 1999. Wood GP: Laparoscopic Examination of the Normal Infertile Woman. Obstet Gynecol 62:642-643, 1983. Corson SL, Cheng A, Gutmann JN: Laparoscopy in the “Normal” Infertile Patient: A Question Revisited.” J Am Assoc Gynecol Laparosc 7:317-324, 2000. Davis OK, Rosenwaks Z: Super-Ovulation Strategies for Assisted Reproductive Technologies. Seminars in Reproductive Medicine. 19:207-212, 2001. Agarwal SK, Buyalos RP: Clomiphene Citrate with Intrauterine Insemination: Is it Effective Therapy in Women Above the Age of 3 Years. Fertil Steril 65:759-763, 1996. Meeks GR, McDonald J, Gookin K, et al: Insemination with Fresh Donor Sperm. Obstet Gynecol 68:527-530, 1986. Yeh J, Seibel MM: Artificial Insemination with Donor Sperm: A Review of 108 Patients. Obstet Gynecol 70:313-316, 1987. Bradshaw KD, Guzick DS, Grun B, et al: Cumulative Pregnancy Rates for Donor Insemination According to Ovulatory Function and Tubal Status. Fertil Steril 48:1051-1054, 1987. Kovacs G, Baker G, Burger H, et al: Artificial Insemination with Cryopreserved Donor Semen: A Decade of Experience. Brit J Obstet Gynaecol 95:354-360, 1988. Strong C, Schinfeld JS: The Single Woman ad Artificial Insemination by Donor. J Reprod Med 29:293-299, 1984. McGuire M, Alexander NJ: Artificial Insemination of Single Women. Fertil Steril 43:182-184, 1985. Wendland CL, Byrn F, Hill C: Donor Insemination : A Comparison of Lesbian Couples, Heterosexual Couples and Single Women. Fertil Steril 65:764-770, 1996. 2001 Assisted Reproductive Technology Success Rates: National Summary and Fertility Clinic Reports. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. December, 2003. Hill GA, Bryan S, Herbert CM, et al: Complications of Pregnancy in Infertile Couples: Routine Treatment vs. Assisted Reproduction. Obstet Gynecol 75:790-794, 1999. Lipitz S, Seidman DS, Alkalay M, et al: The Effect of Fertility Drugs and In vitro Methods on the Outcome of 106 Triplet Pregnancies. Fertil Steril 60:1031-1034, 1993. Schiev LA, Peterson HB, Meikle SF, et al: Live-Birth Rates and Multiple-Birth Risk Using In Vitro Fertilization. JAMA 282:1832-1838, 1999. Contribution of Assisted Reproductive Technology and Ovulation-Inducing Drugs to Triplet and High-Order Multiple Births – United States, 1980-1997. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. 49:535-538, June 23, 2000. Hazekamp J, Bergh C, Wennerholm U-B, et al: Avoiding Multiple Pregnancies in ART: Considerations of New Strategies. Hum Reprod 15:1217-1219, 2000. Keith LG, Oleszczuk JJ: Triplet Births in the United States: An Epidemic of High-Risk Pregnancies. J Reprod Med 47:259-265, 2002. Nowak E, Blickstein I, Papiernik E, et al: Iatrogenic Multiple Pregnancies: Do They Complicate Perinatal Care? J Reprod Med 48:601-609, 2003. Lynch A, McDuffie R, Murphy J, et al: Assisted Reproductive Interventions and Multiple Birth. Obstet Gynecol 97:195-200, 2001. Nijs M, Geerts L, Roosendaal EV: Prevention of Multiple Pregnancies in an In Vitro Fertilization Program. Fertil Steril 59:1245-1250, 1993. Albano C, Platteau P, Nogueira D, et al: Avoidance of Multiple Pregnancies after Ovulation Induction by Supernumerary Preovulatory Follicular Reduction. Fertil Steril 76:820-822, 2001. Brandes JM, Itskovitz J, Temor-Tritsch IE, et al: Reduction of the Number of Embryos in a Multiple Pregnancy: Quintuplet to Triplet. Fertil Steril 48:326-327, 1987. Shalev J, Frenkel Y, Goldenberg M, et al: Selective Reduction in Multiple Gestations: Pregnancy Outcome after Transvaginal and Transabdominal Needle-Guided Procedures. Fertil Steril 52:416-420, 1989. Papiernik E, Grange G, Zeitlin J: Should Multi-Fetal Pregnancy Reduction be Used for Prevention of Pre-term Deliveries in Triplet or High Order Multiple Pregnancies? J Perinat Med 26:365-370, 1998. Ovarian Hyperstimulation Syndrome. The Practice Committee of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Fertil Steril 80:1309-1314, 2003. Dessole S, Rubattu G, Ambrosini G, et al: Blood Loss Following Non-Complicated Transvaginal Ooocyte Retrieval for In Vitro Fertilization. Fertil Steril 76:205-206, 2001. Meaker SR: Ovarian Resection for the Relief of Sterility. Fertil Steril 1:293-305, 1950. MacLeod SC, Milton DM, Parker AS, et al: Experience with Induction of Ovulation. Am J Obstet Gynecol 108:814-823, 1970. Buyalos RP, Lee CT: Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: Pathophysiology and Outcome with In Vitro Fertilization. Fertil Steril 65:1-10, 1996. Child TJ, Abdul-Jalil AK, Guleki B, et al: In Vitro Maturation and Fertilization of Oocytes from Unstimulated Normal Ovaries, Polycystic Ovaries and Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome. Fertil Steril 76:936-942, 2001. Jones HW, Rock JA: Reparative and Constructive Surgery of the Female Genital Tract. Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore/London, 1983. Barnhart K, Dunsmoor-Su R, Coutfifaris C: The Effect of Endometriosis on In Vitro Fertilization. Fertil Steril 77:1148-1155, 2002. Gomel V: Salpingostomy by Microsurgery. Fertil Steril 29:380-387, 1978. Stewart CR, Cooke ID: Pregnancy Following Infertility. Clin Obstet Gynaecol 1:449-475, 1974. Hack M, Brish M, Serr DM, et al: Outcome of Pregnancy After Induced Ovulation. JAMA 211:791-797, 1970. Hack M, Brish M, Serr DM, et al: Outcome of Pregnancy After Induced Ovulation. Followup of Pregnancies in Children Born after Clomiphene Therapy. JAMA 220:1329-1333, 1972. Need JA, Bell B, Meffin E, et al: Preeclampsia in Pregnancies from Donor Inseminations. J Reprod Immunol 5:329-338, 1983. Varma TR, Patel RH: Outcome of Pregnancy Following Investigation and Treatment of Infertility. Int J Gynaecol Obstet 25:113-120, 1987. Varma TR, Patel RH, Bhathenia RK: Outcome of Pregnancy After Infertility. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 67:115-119, 1988. Williams MA, Goldman MV, Mittendorf R, et al: Subfertility and the Risk of Low Birth Weight. Fertil Steril 56:668-671, 1991 Smith GN, Walker M, Tessier JL, et al: Increased Incidence of Preeclampsia in Women Conceiving by Intrauterine Insemination with Donor vs. Partner Sperm for Treatment of Primary Infertility. Am J Obstet Gynecol 178:417-418, 1998. Need JA, Bell B, Meffin E, et al: Preeclampsia in Pregnancy from Donor Inseminations. J Reprod Immunol 5:329-338, 1983. Salha O, Sharma V, Dada T, et al: The Influence of Donating Gametes on the Incidence of Hypertensive Disorders of Pregnancy. Hum Reprod 14:2268-2273, 1999. Serour GI, Aboulghar M, Mansour R, et al: Complications of Medically-Assisted Conception in 3,500 Cycles. Fertil Steril 70:638-642, 1998. Zuppa AA, Maragliano G, Scapillati ME, et al: Neonatal Outcome of Spontaneous and Assisted Twin Pregnancies. Europ J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Bio 95:68-72, 2001. Tan S-L, Doyle P, Campbell S, et al: Obstetric Outcome of In Vitro Fertilization Pregnancies Compared with Normally Conceived Pregnancies. Am J Obstet Gynecol 167:778-784, 1992. Seoud MA-F, Toner JP, Kruethoff C, et al: Outcome of Twin, Triplet and Quadruplet in In Vitro Fertilization Pregnancies: The Norfolk Experience. Fertil Steril 58:827-834, 1992. Doyle P, Beral V, Maconochie N: Preterm Delivery, Low Birth Weight and Small-for-Gestational-Age in Live Born Singleton Babies Resulting from In Vitro Fertilization. Hum Reprod 7:425-428, 1992. Fisch B, Harel L, Kaplan B, et al: Neonatal Assessment of Babies Conceived by In Vitro Fertilization. J Perinat 17:473-476, 1997. Tough SC, Greene CA, Svenson LW, et al: Effects of In Vitro Fertilization on Low Birth Weight, Pre-term Delivery and Multiple Birth. J Pediatr 136:618-622, 2000. Schiev LA, Meikle SF, Ferre C, et al: Low and Very Low Birth Weight in Infants Conceived with Use of Assisted Reproductive Technology. N Engl J Med 346:731-737, 2002. Reubinof BE, Samueloff A, Ben-Haim M, et al: Is the Obstetric Outcome of In Vitro Fertilized Singleton Gestations Different from Natural Ones? A Controlled Study. Fertil Steril 67:1077-1083, 1997. French In Vitro National: Pregnancies and Births Resulting from In Vitro Fertilization: French National Registry, Analysis of Data 1986-1990. Fertil Steril 64:746-756, 1995. Lynch A, McDuffey R, Murphy J, et al: Preeclampsia and Multiple Gestation: The Role of Assisted Reproductive Technologies. Obstet Gynecol 99:445-451, 2002. McFaul PB, Patel N, Mills J: An Audit of the Obstetric Outcome of 148 Consecutive Pregnancies from Assisted Conception: Implications for Neonatal Services. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 100:820-825, 1993. Stromberg B, Dahlquist G, Ericson A, et al: Neurological Sequelae in Children Born after In Vitro Fertilization: A Population-Based Study. Lancet 359:461-465, 2002. Macas E, Imthurn B, Keller PJ: Increased Incidence of Numerical Chromosome Abnormalities in Spermatazoa Injected into Human Oocytes by ICSI. Hum Reprod 16:115-120, 2001. Aboulghar H, Aboulghar M, Mansour R, et al: A Prospective Controlled Study of Karyotyping for 430 Consecutive Babies Conceived Through Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection. Fertil Steril 76:249-253, 2001. Hansen M, Kurinczuk JJ, Bower C, et al: The Risk of Major Birth Defects after Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection and In Vitro Fertilization. N Engl J Med 346:725-730, 2002. Sutcliffe AG, Taylor B, Saunders K, et al: Outcome in the Second Year of Life after In Vitro Fertilization by Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection: A UK Case-Controlled Study. Lancet 357:2080-2084, 2001. Wennerholm U-B, Bergh C, Hamburger L, et al: Obstetric Outcome of Pregnancies Following ICSI, Classified According to the Sperm Origin and Quality. Hum Reprod 15:1189-1194, 2000. Bonduelle M, Liebaers I, Deketelare V, et al: Neonatal Data on a Cohort of 2889 Infants Born after ICSI (1991-1999) and of 2995 Infants Born after IVF (1983-1999). Hum Reprod 17:671-694, 2002. Kovalevsky G, Rinauedo P, Coutifaris C: Do Assisted Reproductive Technologies Cause Adverse Fetal Outcomes? Fertil Steril 79:1270-1271, 2003. Salvatore P, Gariboldi S, Offidani A, et al: Psychopathology, Personality, and Marital Relationship in Patients Undergoing In Vitro Fertilization Procedures. Fertil Steril 75:1119-1125, 2001. Thadani VM: Clues from Research into Cross-Species Fertilization. Contemp OB/GYN 20:203-209, 1982. Corson SL, Batzer FR, Go KJ, et al: Correlations Between the Human Sperm-Hamster Egg Penetration Assay and In Vitro Fertilization Results. J Reprod Med 32:879-887, 1987. Margalioth EJ, Navot D, Laufer N, et al: Correlation Between the Zona-Free Hamster Egg Sperm Penetration Assay and Human In Vitro Fertilization. Fertil Steril 45:665-670, 1986. ACOG Committee Opinion. Committee on Ethics. Pre-Embryo Research: History, Scientific Background and Ethical Considerations. 136, April 1994. Hoffman DI, Zellman GL, Fair CC, et al: Cryo-Preserved Embryos in the United States and Their Availability for Research. Fertil Steril 79:1063-1069, 2003. Beyler SA, Meyer WR, Fritz MA: Disposition of Extra Embryos. Fertil Steril 74:213-215, 2000. Sauer MV: Indecent Proposal: $5,000 is not “Reasonable Compensation” for Oocyte Donors. Fertil Steril 71:7-8, 1999. Reuters. Babies from Thawed Ovarian Tissue by 2009 – Experts. June 30, 1999. Grady D: Pregnancy Created with Egg Nucleus of Infertile Women. thenewyorktimes.com October 14, 2003. Neergaard L: Ethics Expert Supports Sex Selection in IVF. Associated Press. September 29, 2001. Paulson RJ, Thornton MH, Francis MM, et al: Successful Pregnancy in a 63-Year-Old Woman. Fertil Steril 67:949-951, 1997. Paulson RJ, Boostanfar R, Saadat P, et al: Pregnancy in the Sixth Decade of Life. Obstetric Outcomes in Women of Advanced Reproductive Age. JAMA 288:2320-2323, 2002. Sauer MV: Motherhood at Any Age? Egg Donation was not Intended for Everyone. Fertil Steril 69:187-188, 1998. Ohl DA, Park J, Cohen C, et al: Procreation after Death or Mental Incompetence: Medical Advance or Technology Gone Awry? Fertil Steril 66:889-895, 1996. Buster JA, Carson SA: Taking a Results-Oriented Approach to Infertility. Contemp OB/GYN, pp 100-126, October 1998. Leese HJ, Donnay I, Thompson JG: Human Assisted Conception: A Cautionary Tale. Lessons From Domestic Animals. Hum Reprod. 15:184-202,1998. Rowland R: Social Implications of Reproductive Technology: Int Rev Nat Fam Plan 8:189-205, 1984.

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C. Medical Risks of Infertility

    Thomas EJ, Campbell, IG: Evidence that Endometriosis Behaves in a Malignant Manner. Gynecol Obstet Invest 50 (Suppl 1): 2-10, 2000. Dmowski WP, Rana N, Jafari N: Post Laparoscopic Small Bowel Obstruction Secondary to Unrecognized Nodular Endometriosis of the Terminal Ileum. J Am Assoc Gynecol Laparosc 8: 161-166, 2001. Henkel A, Christensen B, Schinler AE: Endometriosis: A Clinically Malignant Disease. Euro J Obstet Gynecol Repro Bio 82: 209-211, 1999. Nezhat C, Nezhat F, Nezhat C, Nasserbakht F, Rosati M, Seidman DS: Urinary Tract Endometriosis Treated by Laparoscopy. Fertil Steril 66: 920-924, 1996. Zanetta G, Web MJ and Segura GW: Ureteral Endometriosis Diagnosed at Ureteroscopy. Obstet Gynecol 91: 857-859, 1998. Nackley AC, Jeko TR: Ureteral Displacement Associated with Pelvic Peritoneal Defects and Endometriosis. J Am Assoc Gynecol Laparosc 7: 131-133, 2000. Maxson WS, Hill GA, Herbert CM, Kaufman AJ, Pittaway DE, Daniell JF, Winfield AC, Wentz AC: Ureteral Abnormalities in Women with Endometriosis. Fertil Steril 46: 1159-1161, 1986. Loverro G, Cormio G, Greco P, Altomare D, Putignano G, Slevaggi L: Perforation of the Sigmoid Colon During Pregnancy: A Rare Complication of Endometriosis. J Gynecol Surg 15: 155-157, 1999. Halme J, Chafe W, Currie JL: Endometriosis with Massive Ascites. Obstet Gynecol 65: 591-592, 1985. Samora-Mata J, Feste JR: Endometriosis Ascites: A Case Report. JSLS 3: 229-231, 1999. Mendez LE, Echt L, Rock JA, Horowitz IR: Pulmonary Endometriosis: A Clinical Review. J Pelv Surg 6: 130-135, 2000. Seltzer VL, Benjamin F: Treatment of Pulmonary Endometriosis with a Long-Acting GnRH Agonist. Obstet Gynecol 76: 929-931, 1990. Torkelson SJ, Lee RA, Hildahl DB: Obstet Gynecol 71: 473-477, 1988. Nezhat C, Seidman DS, Nezhat F, Nezhat C: Laparoscopic Surgical Management of Diaphragmatic Endometriosis. Fertil Steril 69: 1048-1055, 1998. Fedele L, Bianchi S, Portuese A, Borruto F, Dorta M: Transrectal Ultrasonography in the Assessment of Rectal Vaginal Endometriosis. Obstet Gynecol 91: 444-448, 1998. Thorton JG, Morley S, Lilleyman J, Onwude JL, Currie I, Crompton AC: The Relationship Between Laparoscopic Disease, Pelvic Pain and Infertility: An Unbiased Assessment. Uro J Obstet Gynecol Repro Bio 74: 57-52, 1997. Halstead L, Pepping P, Dmowski WP: The Woman with Endometriosis: Ignored, Dismissed and Devalued – A Research Pilot Study Presented at the Second International Symposium on Endometriosis. The Endometriosis Association, 1989. Chronic Pelvic Pain. ACOG Technical Bulletin. No. 223, May. The Committee on Technical Bulletins of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, 1996. Ling FW: Randomized Control Trial of Depo Leuprolide in Patients with Chronic Pelvic Pain and Clinically Suspected Endometriosis. Obstet Gynecol 93: 51-58, 1999. Koninckx PR, et al: Suggestive Evidence that Pelvic Endometriosis is a Progressive Disease, Whereas Deeply Infiltrating Endometriosis is Associated with Pelvic Pain. Fertil Steril 55: 759-765, 1991. Carter JE: Hysteroscopic and Laparoscopic Findings in Chronic Pelvic Pain. J Am Assoc Gynecol Laparosc 2: 4, 1994. Ripps BA, Martin DC: Focal Pelvic Tenderness, Pelvic Pain, Dysmenorrhea and Endometriosis. J Reprod Med 36: 470-472, 1991. Carter JE, Trotter JP: GnRH Analogs in the Treatment of Endometriosis: Clinical and Economic Considerations. Female Patient. 20: 13-20, 1995. Fedele L, Bianchi S, Bocciolone L, DiNola G, Parazzini F: Pain Symptoms Associated with Endometriosis. Obstet Gynecol 79: 767-769, 1992. Popora MG, Koninckx PR, Piazze J, Natili M, Colagrande S, Cosmi EV: Correlation Between Endometriosis and Pelvic Pain. J Am Assoc Gynecol Laparosc 6: 429-434, 1999. Chapron C, Dubuisson J-B, Tardif D, Fritel X, Lacroix S, Kinkel K, Dumontier I, Dousset B, Vacher-Lavenu M-C: Retroperitoneal Endometriosis and Pelvic Pain: Results of Laparoscopic Uterosacral Ligament Resection According to the rAFS Classification in Histopathologic Results. J Gynecol Surg 14: 51-58, 1998. Dmowski WP, Lesniewicz R, Rana N, Pepping P, Noursalehi M: Changing Trends in the Diagnosis of Endometriosis: A Comparative Study of Women with Pelvic Endometriosis Presenting Chronic Pelvic Pain or Infertility. Fertil Steril 67: 238-243, 1997. Reiter RC, Gambone JC: Demographic and Historic Variables in Women with Idiopathic Chronic Pelvic Pain. Obstet Gynecol 75: 428-432, 1990. Chronic Pelvic Pain and Dysmenorrhea. ADS: The Female Patient 10: 79-80, 1985. Stovall DW, Bowser LM, Archer DF, Guzick DS: Fertil Steril 68: 13-18, 1997. Redwine DB: Ovarian Endometriosis: A Marker for More Extensive Pelvic and Intestinal Disease. Fertil Steril 72: 310-315, 1999. 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D. NaProTECHNOLOGY in Infertility

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